Adenosine - CAS 58-61-7
Catalog number: 58-61-7
Category: Inhibitor
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Nucleoside Antimetabolite/Analog
Adenosine is a purine nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
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1.Silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted axially with different nucleoside moieties. Effects of nucleoside type on the photosensitizing efficiencies and in vitro photodynamic activities.
Zheng BY1, Shen XM1, Zhao DM1, Cai YB1, Ke MR1, Huang JD2. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016 Apr 8;159:196-204. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.03.055. [Epub ahead of print]
A series of new silicon(IV) phthalocyanines (SiPcs) di-substituted axially with different nucleoside moieties have been synthesized and evaluated for their singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ) and in vitro photodynamic activities. The adenosine-substituted SiPc shows a lower photosensitizing efficiency (ΦΔ=0.35) than the uridine- and cytidine-substituted analogs (ΦΔ=0.42-0.44), while the guanosine-substituted SiPc exhibits a weakest singlet oxygen generation efficiency with a ΦΔ value down to 0.03. On the other hand, replacing axial adenosines with chloro-modified adenosines and purines can result in the increase of photogenerating singlet oxygen efficiencies of SiPcs. The formed SiPcs 1 and 2, which contain monochloro-modified adenosines and dichloro-modified purines respectively, appear as efficient photosensitizers with ΦΔ of 0.42-0.44. Both compounds 1 and 2 present high photocytotoxicities against HepG2 and BGC823 cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 9nM to 33nM.
2.Update on the safety and efficacy of retroviral gene therapy for immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency.
Cicalese MP1, Ferrua F1, Castagnaro L1, Pajno R2, Barzaghi F1, Giannelli S1, Dionisio F1, Brigida I1, Bonopane M1, Casiraghi M1, Tabucchi A3, Carlucci F3, Grunebaum E4, Adeli M5, Bredius RG6, Puck JM7, Stepensky P8, Tezcan I9, Rolfe K10, De Boever E10, Re Blood. 2016 Apr 29. pii: blood-2016-01-688226. [Epub ahead of print]
Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a rare, autosomal recessive systemic metabolic disease characterized by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The treatment of choice for ADA-deficient SCID (ADA-SCID) is hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor, although fewer than 25% of patients have such a donor available. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) partially and temporarily relieves immunodeficiency. We investigated the medium-term outcome of gene therapy (GT) in 18 patients with ADA-SCID for whom an HLA-identical family donor was not available; most were not responding well to ERT. Patients were treated with an autologous CD34+ enriched cell fraction that contained CD34+ cells transduced with a retroviral vector encoding the human ADA cDNA sequence (GSK2696273) as part of single-arm, open-label studies or compassionate use programs. Overall survival was 100% over 2.3 to 13.4 years (median: 6.
3.Inosine, an Endogenous Purine Nucleoside, Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: a Role for A2A Adenosine Receptor.
Junqueira SC1,2, Dos Santos Coelho I2,3, Lieberknecht V1,2, Cunha MP2,4, Calixto JB5, Rodrigues AL2,4, Santos AR2,3, Dutra RC6,7. Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell autoimmune, inflammatory, and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Currently available therapies have partially effective actions and numerous side reactions. Inosine, an endogenous purine nucleoside, has immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, and analgesic properties. Herein, we evaluated the effect of inosine on the development and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model of MS. Inosine (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated twice a day for 40 days. Immunological and inflammatory responses were evaluated by behavioral, histological, immunohistochemical, ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blotting analysis. The administration of inosine exerted neuroprotective effects against EAE by diminishing clinical signs, including thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as weight loss typical of the disease. These beneficial effects of inosine seem to be associated with the blockade of inflammatory cell entry into the CNS, especially lymphocytes, thus delaying the demyelinating process and astrocytes activation.
4.The Effect of Endogenous Adenosine on Neuronal Activity in Rats: An FDG PET Study.
Parkinson FE1,2, Paul S1,2, Zhang D3,2, Mzengeza S4, Ko JH3,2. J Neuroimaging. 2016 Apr 15. doi: 10.1111/jon.12349. [Epub ahead of print]
2-18 F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is a glucose analog that is taken up by cells and phosphorylated. The amount of FDG accumulated by cells is a measure of the rate of glycolysis, which reflects cellular activity. As the levels and actions of the neuromodulator adenosine are dynamically regulated by neuronal activity, this study was designed to test whether endogenous adenosine affects tissue accumulation of FDG as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) or by postmortem analysis of tissue radioactivity. Rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl-xanthine (DPCPX, 3 mg/kg), the adenosine kinase inhibitor ABT-702 (3 mg/kg), or vehicle 10 minutes prior to an intravenous injection of FDG (15.4 ± 0.7 MBq per rat). Rats were then subjected to a 15 minute static PET scan. Reconstructed images were normalized to FDG PET template for rats and standard uptake values (SUVs) were calculated.
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