1.The CAG regimen (low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin hydrochloride and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) for the treatment of elderly acute myelomonocytic leukaemia: a case study.
Tsuda T1, Okamoto Y, Sakaguchi R, Katayama N, Ota K. J Int Med Res. 2001 Jan-Feb;29(1):41-7.
Elderly patients with acute myelomonocytic leukaemia (AMMoL) frequently have a poor quality of life after induction of remission using high-intensity treatment; we seek a more appropriate regimen for such patients. An 86-year-old man was hospitalized with a diagnosis of AMMoL (FAB classification M4), of abnormal karyotype, and complications of diabetes mellitus and complete right bundle branch block. He was treated with CAG therapy (cytarabine 10 mg/m2 subcutaneously every 12 h for 14 consecutive days; aclarubicin hydrochloride 10 mg/m2 per day, bolus intravenously for 4 consecutive days; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 100 microg/day, subcutaneous injection for 14 consecutive days) every 3 months. White blood cell counts were at their lowest (around 600 - 800/microl) 12 days after the end of therapy, but returned to about 2000 - 2300/microl 30 days after stopping therapy. No symptoms of drug-related toxicity, except slight nausea, were found.
2.Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma using polylactic acid microspheres containing aclarubicin hydrochloride.
Ichihara T1, Sakamoto K, Mori K, Akagi M. Cancer Res. 1989 Aug 1;49(15):4357-62.
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization therapy using polylactic acid microspheres containing aclarubicin hydrochloride (ACR) was performed in 62 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. These microspheres were about 200 microns in diameter and contained 10% (w/w) aclarubicin. A single dose of polylactic acid microspheres containing ACR (50-100 mg of ACR) was administered 1 to 8 times with a mean of 2.2 doses (a total of 160 treatments) in 62 patients. Antitumor effects were observed from the decrease in serum alpha-fetoprotein levels (82.1% of the patients) and in two dimensional size of tumor on computed tomography (93.6%). The cumulative survival rate was 54.3% at 1 year, 24.6% at 2 years, and 19.2% at 3 years, respectively, among 59 patients with unresectable tumors. In 3 resected liver specimens, there was a significant accumulation of ACR in the tumor, and severe necroses of the tumors were observed histologically. Systemic toxicity was mild and all patients tolerated this treatment.
3.Management of malignant pericardial effusion resulting from recurrent cancer with local instillation of aclarubicin hydrochloride.
Kawashima O1, Kurihara T, Kamiyoshihara M, Sakata S, Ishikawa S, Morishita Y. Am J Clin Oncol. 1999 Aug;22(4):396-8.
To determine the efficacy of aclarubicin hydrochloride in local control of malignant pericardial effusion, the authors carried out a trial of pericardial drainage with local administration of this agent in five patients, whose effusions had produced cardiac tamponade. All patients were women, and their primary cancers, all initially treated surgically, had arisen in the breast (two patients), or lung (three patients). Mean patient age was 54.2 years (range, 43-62). In four patients, improvement permitted removal of the drainage catheter. Two patients (40%) had a complete remission of the malignant pericardial effusion. The other three patients were difficult to evaluate because nonpericardial metastases limited their survival. All patients, however, showed disappearance of malignant cells from the pericardial sac with no cytopathologically demonstrable recurrence. In our few patients, intrapericardial aclarubicin appeared to be highly effective against malignant pericardial effusion.