1.Significant Reduction in the Incidence of Genital Warts in Young Men 5 Years Into the Danish Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program for Girls and Women.
Bollerup S1, Baldur-Felskov B, Blomberg M, Baandrup L, Dehlendorff C, Kjaer SK. Sex Transm Dis. 2016 Apr;43(4):238-42. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000418.
BACKGROUND: Denmark introduced the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine into the vaccination program for 12- to 15-year-old girls in 2008 to 2009. In 2012, the program was supplemented with a catch-up program for women aged up to 27 years. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Danish vaccination program on the nationwide incidence of genital warts (GWs), after the second catch-up by including information on both hospital treatments and on self-administered treatment with podophyllotoxin. Genital wart incidence was investigated in both sexes; however, the main focus was on potential herd protection of men.
2.Identification of anti-cancer chemical compounds using Xenopus embryos.
Tanaka M1, Kuriyama S1, Itoh G1, Kohyama A2, Iwabuchi Y2, Shibata H3, Yashiro M4, Aiba N1. Cancer Sci. 2016 Mar 28. doi: 10.1111/cas.12940. [Epub ahead of print]
Cancer tissues have biological characteristics similar to those observed in embryos during development. Many types of cancer cells acquire pro-invasive ability through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Similar processes (gastrulation and migration of cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs)) are observed in the early stages of embryonic development in Xenopus during which cells that originate from epithelial sheets through EMT migrate to their final destinations. This study examined Xenopus embryonic tissues to identify anti-cancer compounds that prevent cancer invasion. From the initial test of known anti-cancer drugs, AMD3100 (an inhibitor of CXCR4) and Paclitaxel (a cytoskeletal drug targeting microtubules) effectively prevented migration during gastrulation or CNCCs development. Blind-screening of 100 synthesized chemical compounds was performed, and nine candidates that inhibited migration of these embryonic tissues without embryonic lethality were selected.
3.Chemosensitizing effect of podophyllotoxin acetate on topoisomerase inhibitors leads to synergistic enhancement of lung cancer cell apoptosis.
Hong WG1, Cho JH1, Hwang SG1, Lee E2, Lee J3, Kim JI4, Um HD1, Park JK1. Int J Oncol. 2016 Apr 1. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2016.3471. [Epub ahead of print]
Podophyllotoxin acetate (PA) acts as a radiosensitizer against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined its potential role as a chemosensitizer in conjunction with the topoisomerase inhibitors etoposide (Eto) and camptothecin (Cpt). The effects of combinations of PA and Eto/Cpt were examined with CompuSyn software in two NSCLC cell lines, A549 and NCI-H1299. Combination index (CI) values indicated synergistic effects of PA and the topoisomerase inhibitors. The intracellular mechanism underlying synergism was further determined using propidium iodide uptake, immunoblotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Combination of PA with Eto/Cpt promoted disruption of the dynamics of actin filaments, leading to subsequent enhancement of apoptotic cell death via induction of caspase-3, -8, and -9, accompanied by increased phosphorylation of p38. Conversely, suppression of p38 phosphorylation blocked the apoptotic effect of the drug combinations.
4.Anal human papillomavirus infection: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of related lesions.
Benevolo M1, Donà MG2, Ravenda PS3, Chiocca S4. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016 May;14(5):465-77. doi: 10.1586/14787210.2016.1174065.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is mostly asymptomatic, but may also have many diverse clinical signs encompassing benign ano-genital lesions, and carcinomas. Recently, interest has also particularly focused on anal cancer since, over the last decades, its incidence has been greatly increasing in developed countries, both in women and men and is drastically higher in specific risk groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 infected individuals. Approximately 88% of anal cancer cases worldwide are associated with HPV infection. This review summarizes our current understanding of anal HPV infection, discussing its epidemiology and risk factors in various populations, and the state of the art in the detection of anal HPV infection and its related lesions through both cytology and histology. Finally, we discuss the clinical management and therapy for these lesions.