1.Application of photoaffinity labeling with [(3)H] all trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acids for characterization of cellular retinoic acid--binding proteins I and II.
Radominska-Pandya A1, Chen G, Samokyszyn VM, Little JM, Gall WE, Zawada G, Terrier N, Magdalou J, Czernik P. Protein Sci. 2001 Jan;10(1):200-11.
Cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (CRABPs) are carrier proteins thought to play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) and its derivatives within the cell. This report describes a novel photoaffinity-based binding assay involving competition between potential ligands of CRABP and [(3)H]atRA or [(3)H]-9-cis-RA for binding to the atRA-binding sites of CRABP I and II. Photoaffinity labeling of purified CRABPs with [(3)H]atRA was light- and concentration-dependent, saturable, and protected by several retinoids in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that binding occurred in the CRABP atRA-binding site. Structure-function relationship studies demonstrated that oxidative changes to the atRA beta-ionone ring did not affect ligand potency. However, derivatives lacking a terminal carboxyl group and some cis isomers did not bind to CRABPs. These studies also identified two novel ligands for CRABPs: 5,6-epoxy-RA and retinoyl-beta-D-glucuronide (RAG).
2.Photoaffinity labeling of human retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta) with 9-cis-retinoic acid: identification of phytanic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and lithocholic acid as ligands for RXRbeta.
Radominska-Pandya A1, Chen G. Biochemistry. 2002 Apr 16;41(15):4883-90.
We utilized [20-methyl-(3)H]-9-cis-retinoic acid ([(3)H]9-cis-RA) as a direct photoaffinity probe for the characterization of human recombinant retinoid X receptor beta protein (RXRbeta). The photoaffinity labeling was light- and concentration-dependent, saturable, and protected by unlabeled 9-cis-RA in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that binding occurred in the RXR retinoid binding site. all-trans-Retinoic acid (atRA) did not affect labeling with the 9-cis derivative, confirming that atRA does not compete for the 9-cis-RA binding site. Several retinoid, fatty acid, and bile acid ligands were evaluated for their ability to recognize the 9-cis-RA binding site. Retinol, atRA glucuronide, 13-cis-RA, dolichol, 5,6-epoxy-RA, and vitamin D(3) did not compete for the 9-cis-RA binding site. However, the saturated diterpenoid phytanic acid (PA) and docosahexaenoic acid, which have been recently shown to activate the nuclear receptor, RXR, competed with 9-cis-RA labeling, showing high affinity for the 9-cis-RA binding site.
3.The control of morphogen signalling: regulation of the synthesis and catabolism of retinoic acid in the developing embryo.
Reijntjes S1, Blentic A, Gale E, Maden M. Dev Biol. 2005 Sep 1;285(1):224-37.
We consider here how morphogenetic signals involving retinoic acid (RA) are switched on and off in the light of positive and negative feedback controls which operate in other embryonic signalling systems. Switching on the RA signal involves the synthetic retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) enzymes and it is currently thought that switching off the RA signal involves the CYP26 enzymes which catabolise RA. We have tested whether these enzymes are regulated by the presence or absence of all-trans-RA using the vitamin A-deficient quail model system and the application of excess retinoids on beads to various locations within the embryo. The Raldhs are unaffected either by the absence or presence of excess RA, whereas the Cyps are strongly affected. In the absence of RA some, but not all domains of Cyp26A1, Cyp26B1 and Cyp26C1 are down-regulated, in particular the spinal cord (Cyp26A1), the heart and developing vasculature (Cyp26B1) and the rhombomeres (Cyp26C1).
4.Free radical oxidation of (E)-retinoic acid by the Fenton reagent: competing epoxidation and oxidative breakdown pathways and novel products of 5,6-epoxyretinoic acid transformation.
Panzella L1, Manini P, Napolitano A, d'Ischia M. Chem Res Toxicol. 2004 Dec;17(12):1716-24.
The nature of the products formed by reaction of all-trans retinoic acid (1) and its major metabolite, 5,6-epoxyretinoic acid (2), with the Fenton reagent was investigated. Oxidation of 1 in a vigorously stirred biphasic medium (0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4/ethyl acetate 5:1 v/v) with Fe2+/EDTA complex (2 mol equiv) and a 10-fold excess of H2O2 proceeded smoothly to give a very complex mixture of products. Repeated TLC fractionation of the reaction mixture after methylation allowed isolation of the main products which were identified as 2 methyl ester, (7E)-7,8-epoxyretinoic acid methyl ester (6), all-(E)-2,6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-ylidene)-2,4,6-octatrienal (11), the novel (9E)-5,6,9,10-diepoxyretinoic acid methyl ester (7), and (9Z)-5,6,9,10-diepoxyretinoic acid methyl ester (8) (1:1 mixture of syn/anti isomers each), 5,6-epoxy-beta-ionone (9), 5,6-epoxy-beta-ionylideneacetaldehyde (10), and trace amounts of beta-ionone (12), beta-ionylideneacetaldehyde (13), and 4-oxoretinoic acid (3) methyl ester.