1.Biotransformation of 13(Z)-retinoic acid in mouse skin and human keratinocyte cultures.
Chang HC1, Samokyszyn VM. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2000 Aug;16(8):387-92.
The metabolism of 13-(CIS) in mouse skin in vivo which was treated with TPA (or vehicle) typically showed that the retinoid was oxidized to 4-hydroxy, 5,6-epoxy-13-CIS, 5,8-oxy-13-CIS and undergoes geometric isomerization to RA. Applied 13-(CIS) in human keratinocyte cultures showed that the retinoid was oxidized to 5,6-epoxy-13-CIS, 5,8-oxy-13-CIS, and isomers. Pretreatment with the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA) resulted in a large decrease in formation of the oxirane and increased formation of the alcohol in mouse skin. Proposed mechanisms suggested the involvement of peroxyl radicals and prostaglandin H synthase for the biotransformation of retinoids.