JC-1 - CAS 3520-43-2
Molecular Formula:
Molecular Weight:
Cell and Organelle Stains
JC-1 is a cyanine dye used for studying mitochondrial integrity in the context of cellular apoptosis. JC-1 exhibits green fluorescence at low membrane potential and aggregates to exhibit red fluorescence at higher membrane potentials.
Solid Powder
5,6-dichloro-2-[3-(5,6-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)-1-propen-1-yl]-1,3-diethyl-1H-benzimidazolium, monoiodide; CBIC2; NK 1420
Store at -20°C
485 nm (monomer), 520-570 nm (aggregate)
535 nm (monomer), 570-610 nm (aggregate)
Canonical SMILES:
1.Peroxynitrite-mediated nitrosative stress decreases motility and mitochondrial membrane potential in human spermatozoa.
Uribe P1, Boguen R1, Treulen F1, Sánchez R1, Villegas JV2. Mol Hum Reprod. 2015 Mar;21(3):237-43. doi: 10.1093/molehr/gau107. Epub 2014 Nov 25.
Nitrosative stress is produced by high levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The RNS include peroxynitrite, a highly reactive free radical produced from a diffusion-controlled reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite causes nitration and oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, and is thus considered an important pathogenic mechanism in various diseases. Although high levels of peroxynitrite are associated with astenozoospermia, few reports exist regarding the in vitro effect of high levels of this RNS on human sperm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of nitrosative stress caused by peroxynitrite on the viability, motility and mitochondrial membrane potential of human spermatozoa. To do this, human spermatozoa from healthy donors were exposed in vitro to 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a molecule that generates peroxynitrite. Incubations were done at 37°C for up to 4 h with SIN-1 concentrations between 0.
2.Artesunate induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent and -independent mitochondrial pathways in human myelodysplastic syndrome SKM-1 cells.
Wang Y1, Yang J2, Chen L2, Wang J2, Wang Y2, Luo J2, Pan L3, Zhang X4. Chem Biol Interact. 2014 Aug 5;219:28-36. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2014.03.011. Epub 2014 Apr 3.
Artesunate (ART) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood) that is conventionally used in anti-malarial drugs and more recently in medications that induce tumor cell apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanistic pathways of ART in human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a condition that commonly progresses to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Human MDS SKM-1 cells, primary bone marrow (PBM) mononuclear cells from patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) or MDS-AML (MDS cell group), and PBM stromal cells from three patients without hematological diseases (non-MDS cell group) were cultured for 24, 48, or 72 h with or without various ART concentrations. CCK-8, western blot, JC-1 fluorescence, and Annexin-V/Propidium iodide (PI) labeling were used to assess cell proliferation, protein levels, mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMPs) and apoptosis, respectively. ART administration dose- and time-dependently inhibited SKM-1 proliferation.
3.Ginsenoside Rd attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via Akt/GSK-3β signaling and inhibition of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.
Wang Y1, Li X, Wang X, Lau W, Wang Y, Xing Y, Zhang X, Ma X, Gao F. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 16;8(8):e70956. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070956. eCollection 2013.
Evidence suggests Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), a biologically active extract from the medical plant Panax Ginseng, exerts antioxidant effect, decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Current study determined the effect of GSRd on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury (a pathological condition where ROS production is significantly increased) and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The current study utilized an in vivo rat model of MI/R injury and an in vitro neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRC) model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R) injury. Infarct size was measured by Evans blue/TTC double staining. NRC injury was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay. ROS accumulation and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was determined by 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetrathylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1). Cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bcl-2 family proteins, and phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β were determined by western blot.
4.G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells induced by water extract from residues of jelly fig achene.
Chou WM1, Chen CN2, Hsieh HT3, Lo TY4, Juan PY3, Mai FD3,4. Technol Health Care. 2015 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]
Jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang) achenes have been utilized to prepare a traditional drink in Taiwan. Herein, we evaluated the effect of water extract from jelly fig seed residues (WERJFA) on cancer cells. WERJFA could inhibit the growth of human colorectal cancer cells, COLO205 and HT29 in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide (PI) showed that WERJFA primarily arrested COLO205 and HT29 cells at the G2/M phase of cell cycle as the concentration reached to at least 0.5 mg/ml. WERJFA induced apoptosis of these two cell lines, as evidenced by annexin V-FITC/PI and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in WERJFA-treated cells were detected by flow cytometry with H2DCF-DA and 5,5', 6,6'-Tetrachloro-1, 1', 3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (JC-1).
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Chemical Structure

CAS 3520-43-2 JC-1

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