1.PARTICIPATION OF Y89 AND Y97 IN THE CONJUGATING ACTIVITY OF Drosophila melanogaster GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE D3 (DmGSTD3).
Vignesvaran K1, Alias Z1. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2016 Apr 14. doi: 10.1002/arch.21332. [Epub ahead of print]
Drosophila melanogaster glutathione S-transferase D3 (DmGSTD3) has a shorter amino acid sequence as compared to other GSTs known in the fruit flies. This is due to the 15 amino acid N-terminal truncation in which normally active amino acid residue is located. The work has made use of homology modeling to visualize the arrangement of amino acid side chains in the glutathione (GSH) substrate cavity. The identified amino acids were then replaced with amino acids without functional groups in the side chains and the mutants were analyzed kinetically. Homology modeling revealed that the side chains of Y89 and Y97 were shown facing toward the substrate cavity proposing their possible role in catalyzing the conjugation. Y97A and Y89A GSH gave large changes in Km (twofold increase), Vmax (fivefold reduction), and Kcat /Km values for GSH suggesting their significant role in the conjugation reaction. The replacement at either positions has not affected the affinity of the enzyme toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as no significant change in values of Kmax was observed.
2.Directed evolution of Tau class glutathione transferases reveals a site that regulates catalytic efficiency and masks co-operativity.
Axarli I1, Muleta AW2, Vlachakis D3, Kossida S3, Kotzia G1, Maltezos A1, Dhavala P2, Papageorgiou AC2, Labrou NE4. Biochem J. 2016 Mar 1;473(5):559-70. doi: 10.1042/BJ20150930. Epub 2015 Dec 4.
A library of Tau class GSTs (glutathione transferases) was constructed by DNA shuffling using the DNA encoding the Glycine max GSTs GmGSTU2-2, GmGSTU4-4 and GmGSTU10-10. The parental GSTs are >88% identical at the sequence level; however, their specificity varies towards different substrates. The DNA library contained chimaeric structures of alternated segments of the parental sequences and point mutations. Chimaeric GST sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli and their enzymatic activities towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and the herbicide fluorodifen (4-nitrophenyl α,α,α-trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tolyl ether) were determined. A chimaeric clone (Sh14) with enhanced CDNB- and fluorodifen-detoxifying activities, and unusual co-operative kinetics towards CDNB and fluorodifen, but not towards GSH, was identified. The structure of Sh14 was determined at 1.75 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione.
3.A first continuous 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP)-based screening system for directed esterase evolution.
Lülsdorf N1, Vojcic L, Hellmuth H, Weber TT, Mußmann N, Martinez R, Schwaneberg U. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015 Jun;99(12):5237-46. doi: 10.1007/s00253-015-6612-3. Epub 2015 May 7.
Esterases hydrolyze ester bonds with an often high stereoselectivity as well as regioselectivity and are therefore industrially employed in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, in food processing, and in laundry detergents. Continuous screening systems based on p-nitrophenyl- (e.g., p-nitrophenyl acetate) or umbelliferyl-esters are commonly used in directed esterase evolution campaigns. Ongoing challenges in directed esterase evolution are screening formats which offer a broad substrate spectrum, especially for complex aromatic substrates. In this report, a novel continuous high throughput screening system for indirect monitoring of esterolytic activity was developed and validated by detection of phenols employing phenyl benzoate as substrate and p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBEBL from Bacillus licheniformis) as catalyst. The released phenol directly reacts with 4-aminoantipyrine yielding the red compound 1,5-dimethyl-4-(4-oxo-cyclohexa-2,5-dienylidenamino)-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one.
4.Discovery of InsP6-kinases as InsP6-dephosphorylating enzymes provides a new mechanism of cytosolic InsP6 degradation driven by the cellular ATP/ADP ratio.
Wundenberg T1, Grabinski N1, Lin H1, Mayr GW1. Biochem J. 2014 Aug 15;462(1):173-84. doi: 10.1042/BJ20130992.
InsP6 (inositol hexakisphosphate), the most abundant inositol phosphate in metazoa, is pyrophosphorylated to InsP7 [5PP-InsP5 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate)] by cytosolic and nuclear IP6Ks (InsP6 kinases) and to 1PP-InsP5 by another InsP6/InsP7 kinase family. MINPP1 (multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase 1), the only known InsP6 phosphatase, is localized in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and lysosome lumina. A mechanism of cytosolic InsP6 dephosphorylation has remained enigmatic so far. In the present study, we demonstrated that IP6Ks change their kinase activity towards InsP6 at a decreasing ATP/ADP ratio to an ADP phosphotransferase activity and dephosphorylate InsP6. Enantio-selective analysis revealed that Ins(2,3,4,5,6)P5 is the main InsP5 product of the IP6K reaction, whereas the exclusive product of MINPP1 activity is the enantiomer Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5. Whereas lentiviral RNAi-based depletion of MINPP1 at falling cellular ATP/ADP ratios had no significant impact on Ins(2,3,4,5,6)P5 production, the use of the selective IP6K inhibitor TNP [N2-(m-trifluorobenzyl),N6-(p-nitrobenzyl)purine] abolished the production of this enatiomer in different types of cells.