1.Influence of different combinations of tamoxifen and toremifene on estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines.
Coradini D1, Biffi A, Cappelletti V, Di Fronzo G. Cancer Detect Prev. 1995;19(4):348-54.
Acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance is supposed to be the major cause of hormone therapy failure in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients. Toremifene (TOR), a chlorinated TAM-related compound, has been found to be more effective and less toxic than TAM. Moreover 4-hydroxy-toremifene (OH-TOR), like 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (OH-TAM), is the most effective metabolite in human. To better understand the relative role of TAM, TOR, OH-TAM, and OH-TOR, singly or in combination, we studied their effect on MCF7, ZR-75.1, and T47D cell lines, which, despite their positive receptor status, have a different responsiveness to estradiol and antiestrogenic compounds. The results may be summarized as follows; in MCF7 cells, all compounds, singly or in association, showed an inhibitory effect; ZR75.1 cells were resistance to TAM and OH-TAM, but partially sensitive to TOR and OH-TOR; in T47D cells, all compounds displayed their estrogenic activity and induced cell growth.
2.Role and pharmacologic significance of cytochrome P-450 2D6 in oxidative metabolism of toremifene and tamoxifen.
Kim J1, Coss CC, Barrett CM, Mohler ML, Bohl CE, Li CM, He Y, Veverka KA, Dalton JT. Int J Cancer. 2013 Mar 15;132(6):1475-85. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27794. Epub 2012 Sep 14.
We investigated the in vitro metabolism and estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of toremifene (TOR), tamoxifen (TAM) and their metabolites to better understand the potential effects of cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status on the activity of these drugs in women with breast cancer. The plasma concentrations of TOR and its N-desmethyl (NDM) and 4-hydroxy (4-OH) metabolites during steady-state dosing with TOR were also determined. Unlike TOR, TAM and its NDM metabolite were extensively oxidized to 4-OH TAM and 4-OH-NDM TAM by CYP2D6, and the rate of metabolism was affected by CYP2D6 status. 4-OH-NDM TOR concentrations were not measurable at steady state in plasma of subjects taking 80 mg of TOR. Molecular modeling provided insight into the lack of 4-hydroxylation of TOR by CYP2D6. The 4-OH and 4-OH-NDM metabolites of TOR and TAM bound to estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes with fourfold to 30-fold greater affinity were 35- to 187-fold more efficient at antagonizing ER transactivation and had antiestrogenic potency that was up to 360-fold greater than their parent drugs.
3.Comparative metabolic study between two selective estrogen receptor modulators, toremifene and tamoxifen, in human liver microsomes.
Watanabe M1, Watanabe N2, Maruyama S3, Kawashiro T4. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2015 Oct;30(5):325-33. doi: 10.1016/j.dmpk.2015.05.004. Epub 2015 May 29.
Toremifene (TOR) and Tamoxifen (TAM) are widely used as endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Poor metabolizers of TAM are likely to have worse clinical outcomes than patients who exhibit normal TAM metabolism due to lower plasma level of its active metabolite, 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl (4OH-NDM) tamoxifen (endoxifen). In this study, we examined the role of individual cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in the metabolism of TOR to N-desmethyl (NDM), 4-hydroxy (4OH) and 4OH-NDM metabolites in comparison with TAM using human liver microsomes (HLMs) with selective chemical inhibitors for each CYP isoform and recombinant CYP proteins. Similar levels of NDM metabolites were formed for both TOR and TAM, and N-demethylation of both compounds was primarily carried out by CYP3A4. We found that the formation of 4OH-NDM-TOR was catalyzed both by CYP2C9 and CYP2D6, whereas the formation of 4OH-TAM and endoxifen was specifically catalyzed by CYP2D6 in HLMs.
4.Involvement of cytochrome P450 3A enzyme family in the major metabolic pathways of toremifene in human liver microsomes.
Berthou F1, Dreano Y, Belloc C, Kangas L, Gautier JC, Beaune P. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 May 18;47(10):1883-95.
The anti-estrogen toremifen-Fc-1157a or 4-chloro-1,2-diphenyl-1-[4-[2(N,N-dimethylamino)ethoxy]-phenyl]-1- butene is now used for the treatment of breast cancer. This drug is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 dependent hepatic mixed function oxidase in man, yielding mainly the N-demethyl-(DMTOR), 4-hydroxy-(4OH-TOR) and deamino-hydroxy-(TOR III) toremifene metabolites. The specific forms of cytochrome P450 involved in these oxidation reactions were examined in 32 human liver microsomal preparations previously characterized with respect to their contents of several known P450 enzymes. Toremifene was demethylated with an apparent Km of 124 microM while it was hydroxylated with an apparent Km of 139 microM. The metabolic rates were 71 +/- 56, 13 +/- 9 and 15 +/- 4 pmol/min/mg microsomal protein, respectively, for DMTOR, 4-OH-TOR and TOR III. The N-demethylation activity was strongly correlated with estradiol 2-hydroxylation (r = 0.