1.Benzodiazepine binding characteristics of embryonic rat brain neurons grown in culture.
Syapin PJ;Cole R;De Vellis J;Noble EP J Neurochem. 1985 Dec;45(6):1797-801.
The binding of [3H]diazepam to cell homogenates of embryonic rat brain neurons grown in culture was examined. Under the conditions used to prepare and maintain these neurons, only a single, saturable, high-affinity binding site was observed. The binding of [3H]diazepam was potently inhibited by the CNS-specific benzodiazepine clonazepam (Ki = 0.56 +/- 0.08 nM) but was not affected by the peripheral-type receptor ligand Ro5-4864. The KD for [3H]diazepam bound specifically to cell homogenates was 2.64 +/- 0.24 nM, and the Bmax was 952 +/- 43 fmol/mg of protein. [3H]Diazepam binding to cell membranes washed three times was stimulated dose-dependently by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), reaching 112 +/- 7.5% above control values at 10(-4) M. The rank order for potency of drug binding to the benzodiazepine receptor site in cultured neurons was clonazepam greater than diazepam greater than beta-carboline-3-carboxylate ethyl ester greater than Ro15-1788 greater than CL218,872 much greater than Ro5-4864. The binding characteristics of this site are very similar to those of the Type II benzodiazepine receptors present in rat brain. These data demonstrate that part, if not all, of the benzodiazepine-GABA-chloride ionophore receptor complex is being expressed by cultured embryonic rat brain neurons in the absence of accompanying glial cells and suggest that these cultures may serve as a model system for the study of Type II benzodiazepine receptor function.
2.The role of central- and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in anxiolytic-agent augmentation of NaCl solution intake: effects of clonazepam and Ro 5-4864.
Tang M;Plaessmann WR;Falk JL Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 Jul;30(3):749-52.
Two 1,4 benzodiazepines bind preferentially to the central- and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor in the brain, clonazepam and Ro 5-4864, respectively. They were administered to rats to determine if the relation between known anxiolytic action and efficacy in augmenting NaCl solution ingestion in rehydrating rats would remain the case for these prototypic agents. Clonazepam (0.062-32.0 mg/kg, PO) was highly potent and efficacious and increased 1.5% NaCl solution intake in a dose-related fashion. Water intake could also be increased, but to a relatively minor degree. Ro 5-4864 (4-8 mg/kg, IP) did not affect 1.5% NaCl solution ingestion, nor did this dose range suppress the augmenting effect of clonazepam (0.5-2.0 mg/kg, PO) on the solution intake. Since clonazepam does, and Ro 5-4864 does not, possess punishment-attenuation properties in other tests, drug augmentation of NaCl solution ingestion by rehydrating rats continues to correlate well with known anxiolytic action.
3.Distribution, pharmacological characterization and function of the 18 kDa translocator protein in rat small intestine.
Ostuni MA;Péranzi G;Ducroc RA;Fasseu M;Vidic B;Dumont J;Papadopoulos V;Lacapere JJ Biol Cell. 2009 Jul 31;101(10):573-86. doi: 10.1042/BC20080231.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: ;The TSPO (18 kDa translocator protein) is a mitochondrial transmembrane protein involved in cholesterol transport in organs that synthesize steroids and bile salts. Different natural and synthetic high-affinity TSPO ligands have been characterized through their ability to stimulate cholesterol transport, but also to stimulate other physiological functions including cell proliferation, apoptosis and calcium-dependent transepithelial ion secretion. Here, we investigate the localization and functions of TSPO in the small intestine.;RESULTS: ;TSPO was present in enterocyte mitochondria but not in rat intestinal goblet cells. Enterocyte cytoplasm also contained the endogenous TSPO ligand, polypeptide DBI (diazepam-binding inhibitor). Whereas intestinal TSPO had high affinity for the synthetic ligand PK 11195, the pharmacological profile of TSPO in the duodenum was distinct from the jejunum and ileum. Specifically, benzodiazepine Ro5-4864 and protoporphyrin IX showed 5-13-fold lower affinity for duodenal TSPO. The mRNA and protein ratios of TSPO to other mitochondrial membrane proteins VDAC (voltage-dependent anion channel) and ANT (adenine nucleotide transporter) were significantly different.