4-Aminohippuric Acid - CAS 61-78-9
Catalog number: 61-78-9
Category: Inhibitor
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Molecular Formula:
Molecular Weight:
4-Aminohippuric acid is a typical substrate of organic anion transport systems.
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1.Inhibitory effects of p-aminohippurate and probenecid on the renal clearance of adefovir and benzylpenicillin as probe drugs for organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 and OAT3 in humans.
Maeda K;Tian Y;Fujita T;Ikeda Y;Kumagai Y;Kondo T;Tanabe K;Nakayama H;Horita S;Kusuhara H;Sugiyama Y Eur J Pharm Sci. 2014 Aug 1;59:94-103. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2014.04.004. Epub 2014 Apr 18.
Probe substrates for, and inhibitors of, specific transporters are desired to evaluate quantitatively the in vivo functions of transporters in humans. Based on published data, adefovir and benzylpenicillin were selected as organic anion transporter (OAT) 1- and OAT3-selective probe substrates, respectively. In human kidney slices, probenecid potently inhibited the uptake of both adefovir and benzylpenicillin with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 18.6±5.1 and 12.6±4.2μM, respectively, whereas p-aminohippurate (PAH) preferentially inhibited adefovir uptake. A clinical drug-interaction study involving healthy subjects was performed to investigate the dose-dependent inhibition potencies of probenecid and PAH on the renal clearance of the probe substrates. Adefovir or benzylpenicillin was coadministered with different oral doses of probenecid (500, 750, or 1500mg) or intravenous PAH infusion rates (70, 120, or 210mg/min/person) to the same subject using a crossover design. The renal clearance of adefovir was reduced by 45% and 46% in the subjects treated with the maximum dose of probenecid and PAH, respectively, which was in accordance with the results of in vitro inhibition study. On the other hand, renal clearance of benzylpenicillin was reduced by 78% in the subjects treated with the maximum dose of probenecid (1500mg), which could be explained by its in vitro Ki values.
2.Effect of CP-690,550, an orally active janus kinase inhibitor, on renal function in healthy adult volunteers.
Lawendy N;Krishnaswami S;Wang R;Gruben D;Cannon C;Swan S;Chan G J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Apr;49(4):423-9. doi: 10.1177/0091270008330982.
CP-690,550 is a Janus kinase inhibitor being developed to prevent allograft rejection and treat several autoimmune diseases. This study examines the effect of multiple doses of CP-690,550 on renal function in healthy volunteers. Thirty-four volunteers are randomized in a 2:1 ratio in a double-blinded manner to receive CP-690,550 15 mg twice daily or placebo twice daily for 14 days. Volunteers are confined in-house to receive a controlled regimen of water intake and sodium intake of 4 to 5 g/d. The effect of CP-690,550 on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is measured by iohexol serum clearance, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) by para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) urinary clearance, and creatinine clearance by 24-hour urine collection on day 1 (predose) and day 15. Steady-state pharmacokinetics and tolerability are assessed. Comparing the day 15 and day 1 (predose) values shows that geometric mean ratios for iohexol serum clearance, PAH urinary clearance, and creatinine clearance are 0.995, 0.925, and 0.948, respectively. When adjusted for the corresponding placebo day ratios, the geometric mean ratios are 1.09, 0.978, and 1.05, respectively. CP-690,550 is well tolerated. These findings indicate that CP-690,550 does not affect GFR, ERPF, or creatinine clearance in healthy volunteers.
3.Measurement of glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and endogenous creatinine clearance in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).
Holder EH;Citino SB;Businga N;Cartier L;Brown SA J Zoo Wildl Med. 2004 Jun;35(2):175-8.
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), and the endogenous creatinine clearance (CCr) rate were determined in 13 captive cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus jubatus (seven females and six males, 1.5-7.5 yr of age, x = 5.02 yr), during general anesthesia with Telazol and isoflurane by measuring the urinary clearances of inulin, para-aminohipppuric acid, and endogenous creatinine, respectively. Methods to determine GFR, RPF, and endogenous CCr in captive cheetahs were evaluated, and the relationship between GFR and CCr for this species was determined. The GFR and the RPF were stable during the procedure, with mean values of 1.59+/-0.17 ml/min/kg body weight and 5.12+/-1.15 ml/min/kg body weight, respectively. Although the mean value for CCr (1.47+/-0.20 ml/min/kg body weight) was significantly less than the corresponding value for GFR, the mean difference (0.11+/-0.02 ml/min/kg weight) between the two measurements was slight, and the values were highly correlated (R2 = 0.928; P < 0.0001). The measurement of CCr in cheetahs should provide a reliable estimate of GFR, facilitating the early detection of renal disease in this species.
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CAS 61-78-9 4-Aminohippuric Acid

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