1.Transport characterization of hydrogel matrices for cell encapsulation.
Li RH;Altreuter DH;Gentile FT Biotechnol Bioeng. 1996 May 20;50(4):365-73.
Current membrane-based bioartificial organs consist of three basic components: (1) a synthetic membrane, (2) cells that secrete the product of interest, and (3) an encapsulated matrix material. Alginate and agarose have been widely used to encapsulate cells for artificial organ applications. It is important to understand the degree of transport resistance imparted by these matrices in cell encapsulation to determine if adequate nutrient and product fluxes can be obtained. For artificial organs in xenogeneic applications, it may also be important to determine the extent of immunoprotection offered by the matrix material. In this study, diffusion coefficients were measured for relevant solutes [ranging in size from oxygen to immunoglobulin G (IgG)] into and out of agarose and alginate gels. Alginate gels were produced by an extrusion/ionic crosslinking process using calcium while agarose gels were thermally gelled. The effect of varying crosslinking condition, polymer concentration, and direction of diffusion on transport was investigated. In general, 2-4% agarose gels offered little transport resistance for solutes up to 150 kD, while 1.5-3% alginate gels offered significant transport resistance for solutes in the molecular weight range 44-155 kD-lowering their diffusion rates from 10- to 100-fold as compared to their diffusion in water.
2.Ionic liquid tunes microemulsion curvature.
Liu L;Bauduin P;Zemb T;Eastoe J;Hao J Langmuir. 2009 Feb 17;25(4):2055-9. doi: 10.1021/la8036378.
Middle-phase microemulsions formed from cationic dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODMAC), anionic sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), n-butanol, and n-heptane were studied. An ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]), was employed as the electrolyte in the aqueous media instead of inorganic salts usually used in microemulsion formulation. Studies have been carried out as a function of the concentrations of [bmim][BF4], n-butanol, total surfactant (cDODMAC+SDS), and temperature on the phase behavior and the ultralow interfacial tensions in which the anionic component is present in excess in the catanionic film. Ultralow interfacial tension measurements confirmed the formation of middle-phase microemulsions and the necessary conditions for stabilizing middle-phase microemulsions. Electrical conductivity, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were also performed, indicating that the typical heptane domain size has an average radius of 360 A and the ionic liquid induces softening of the charged catanionic film. Most interestingly, the IL concentration (cIL) is shown to act as an effective interfacial curvature-control parameter, representing a new approach to tuning the formulation of microemulsions and emulsions.
3.Comparison of standard 1.5 T vs. 3 T optimized protocols in patients treated with glatiramer acetate. A serial MRI pilot study.
Zivadinov R;Hojnacki D;Hussein S;Bergsland N;Carl E;Durfee J;Dwyer MG;Kennedy C;Weinstock-Guttman B Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(5):5659-73. doi: 10.3390/ijms13055659. Epub 2012 May 10.
This study explored the effect of glatiramer acetate (GA, 20 mg) on lesion activity using the 1.5 T standard MRI protocol (single dose gadolinium [Gd] and 5-min delay) or optimized 3 T protocol (triple dose of Gd, 20-min delay and application of an off-resonance saturated magnetization transfer pulse). A 15-month, phase IV, open-label, single-blinded, prospective, observational study included 12 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who underwent serial MRI scans (Days -45, -20, 0; the minus ign indicates the number of days before GA treatment; and on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 270 and 360 during GA treatment) on 1.5 T and 3 T protocols. Cumulative number and volume of Gd enhancing (Gd-E) and T2 lesions were calculated. At Days -45 and 0, there were higher number (p < 0.01) and volume (p < 0.05) of Gd-E lesions on 3 T optimized compared to 1.5 T standard protocol. However, at 180 and 360 days of the study, no significant differences in total and cumulative number of new Gd-E and T 2 lesions were found between the two protocols. Compared to pre-treatment period, at Days 180 and 360 a significantly greater decrease in the cumulative number of Gd-E lesions (p = 0.03 and 0.