1.Chronic and selective inhibition of basolateral membrane Na-K-ATPase uniquely regulates brush border membrane Na absorption in intestinal epithelial cells.
Manoharan P1, Gayam S2, Arthur S3, Palaniappan B3, Singh S3, Dick GM4, Sundaram U5. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2015 Apr 15;308(8):C650-6. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00355.2014. Epub 2015 Feb 4.
Na-K-ATPase, an integral membrane protein in mammalian cells, is responsible for maintaining the favorable intracellular Na gradient necessary to promote Na-coupled solute cotransport processes [e.g., Na-glucose cotransport (SGLT1)]. Inhibition of brush border membrane (BBM) SGLT1 is, at least in part, due to the diminished Na-K-ATPase in villus cells from chronically inflamed rabbit intestine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Na-K-ATPase inhibition on the two major BBM Na absorptive pathways, specifically Na-glucose cotransport and Na/H exchange (NHE), in intestinal epithelial (IEC-18) cells. Na-K-ATPase was inhibited using 1 mM ouabain or siRNA for Na-K-ATPase-α1 in IEC-18 cells. SGLT1 activity was determined as 3-O-methyl-D-[(3)H]glucose uptake. Na-K-ATPase activity was measured as the amount of inorganic phosphate released. Treatment with ouabain resulted in SGLT1 inhibition at 1 h but stimulation at 24 h. To further characterize this unexpected stimulation of SGLT1, siRNA silencing was utilized to inhibit Na-K-ATPase-α1.
2.Sugar composition of the pectic polysaccharides of charophytes, the closest algal relatives of land-plants: presence of 3-O-methyl-D-galactose residues.
O'Rourke C1, Gregson T1, Murray L2, Sadler IH2, Fry SC3. Ann Bot. 2015 Aug;116(2):225-36. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcv089. Epub 2015 Jun 25.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During evolution, plants have acquired and/or lost diverse sugar residues as cell-wall constituents. Of particular interest are primordial cell-wall features that existed, and in some cases abruptly changed, during the momentous step whereby land-plants arose from charophytic algal ancestors.
3.Effects of Fat and Protein Preloads on Pouch Emptying, Intestinal Transit, Glycaemia, Gut Hormones, Glucose Absorption, Blood Pressure and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.
Nguyen NQ1,2, Debreceni TL3, Burgstad CM3, Neo M3, Bellon M4, Wishart JM5, Standfield S5, Bartholomeusz D3,4, Rayner CK3,5, Wittert G5, Horowitz M5. Obes Surg. 2016 Jan;26(1):77-84. doi: 10.1007/s11695-015-1722-7.
BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the effects of fat and protein preloads on pouch emptying (PE), caecal arrival time (CAT), glucose absorption, blood glucose (BSL), gut hormones, haemodynamics and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in subjects who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) >12 months previously.
4.The influence of epidural blockade on gut permeability in patients undergoing open surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Owczuk R1, Dylczyk-Sommer A, Wojciechowski J, Paszkiewicz M, Wujtewicz M, Stepnowski P, Twardowski P, Sawicka W, Domżalski M, Wujtewicz MA. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther. 2016 Mar 11. doi: 10.5603/AIT.a2016.0014. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic clamping during aneurysm repair may cause a decrease in splanchnic blood flow and deterioration of gut barrier integrity. Epidural blocks have beneficial effects on vital organs during abdominal surgery, but sparse data are available on the influence on gut permeability during open aortic surgery. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that epidural blocks may have beneficial effects on intestine permeability changes.