1.Covalent modification of the non-catalytic sites of the H(+)-ATPase from chloroplasts with 2-azido-[alpha-(32)P]ATP and its effect on ATP synthesis and ATP hydrolysis.
Possmayer FE1, Hartog AF, Berden JA, Gräber P. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Feb 9;1510(1-2):378-400.
Incubation of the isolated H(+)-ATPase from chloroplasts, CF(0)F(1), with 2-azido-[alpha-(32)P]ATP leads to the binding of this nucleotide to different sites. These sites were identified after removal of free nucleotides, UV-irradiation and trypsin treatment by separation of the tryptic peptides by ion exchange chromatography. The nitreno-AMP, nitreno-ADP and nitreno-ATP peptides were further separated on a reversed phase column, the main fractions were subjected to amino acid sequence analysis and the derivatized tyrosines were used to distinguish between catalytic (beta-Tyr362) and non-catalytic (beta-Tyr385) sites. Several incubation procedures were developed which allow a selective occupation of each of the three non-catalytic sites. The non-catalytic site with the highest dissociation constant (site 6) becomes half maximally filled at 50 microM 2-azido-[alpha-(32)P]ATP, that with the intermediate dissociation constant (site 5) at 2 microM.
2.Importance of glutamate 279 for the coenzyme binding of human glutamate dehydrogenase.
Yoon HY1, Cho EH, Kwon HY, Choi SY, Cho SW. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 1;277(44):41448-54. Epub 2002 Aug 21.
Although the structure of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been reported from various sources including mammalian GDH, there are conflicting views regarding the location and mechanism of actions of the coenzyme binding. We have expanded these speculations by photoaffinity labeling and cassette mutagenesis. Photoaffinity labeling with a specific probe, [(32)P]nicotinamide 2-azidoadenosine dinucleotide, was used to identify the NAD(+) binding site within human GDH encoded by the synthetic human GDH gene and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. Photolabel-containing peptides generated with trypsin were isolated by immobilized boronate affinity chromatography. Photolabeling of these peptides was most effectively prevented by the presence of NAD(+) during photolysis, demonstrating a selectivity of the photoprobe for the NAD(+) binding site. Amino acid sequencing and compositional analysis identified Glu(279) as the site of photoinsertion into human GDH, suggesting that Glu(279) is located at or near the NAD(+) binding site.
3.Transit of tRNA through the Escherichia coli ribosome. Cross-linking of the 3' end of tRNA to specific nucleotides of the 23 S ribosomal RNA at the A, P, and E sites.
Wower J1, Kirillov SV, Wower IK, Guven S, Hixson SS, Zimmermann RA. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 1;275(48):37887-94.
When bound to Escherichia coli ribosomes and irradiated with near-UV light, various derivatives of yeast tRNA(Phe) containing 2-azidoadenosine at the 3' terminus form cross-links to 23 S rRNA and 50 S subunit proteins in a site-dependent manner. A and P site-bound tRNAs, whose 3' termini reside in the peptidyl transferase center, label primarily nucleotides U2506 and U2585 and protein L27. In contrast, E site-bound tRNA labels nucleotide C2422 and protein L33. The cross-linking patterns confirm the topographical separation of the peptidyl transferase center from the E site domain. The relative amounts of label incorporated into the universally conserved residues U2506 and U2585 depend on the occupancy of the A and P sites by different tRNA ligands and indicates that these nucleotides play a pivotal role in peptide transfer. In particular, the 3'-adenosine of the peptidyl-tRNA analogue, AcPhe-tRNA(Phe), remains in close contact with U2506 regardless of whether its anticodon is located in the A site or P site.
4.Site-specific photobiotinylation of antibodies, light chains, and immunoglobulin fragments.
Pavlinkova G1, Lou D, Kohler H. Methods. 2000 Sep;22(1):44-8.
The high affinity of biotin for avidin has been exploited for many antibody-based assays. This requires that biotin is covalently conjugated to the antibody molecule. Several chemically reactive biotinylation reagents are commercially available. Except for the attachment via sulfhydryl groups in the immunoglobulin (Ig) molecule, these reagents attach biotin randomly to various amino acid side chains. Although non-site-specific modification of antibodies does not interfere in most immunoassays, specific application and sensitive antibodies would benefit from site-specific biotinylation. Here we describe an affinity biotinylation technique based on a photoreactive biotin reagent. The design of this reaction was possible from the discovery of a conserved binding site in the variable Ig domain for nucleotides and nucleosides. The described photoaffinity biotinylation offers the advantages of ease, convenience, and production of a reproducible and defined biotinylated antibody preparation.