1.Volatile composition of four southern highbush blueberry cultivars and effect of growing location and harvest date.
Du X1, Plotto A, Song M, Olmstead J, Rouseff R. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Aug 10;59(15):8347-57. doi: 10.1021/jf201184m. Epub 2011 Jul 15.
The volatile composition of four southern highbush blueberry cultivars ('Primadonna', 'Jewel', 'Snowchaser', and 'FL02-40') grown in two locations (Gainesville and Haines City, FL) and harvested multiple times was investigated. A total of 42 volatiles were identified, including 8 esters, 12 terpenoids, 11 aldehydes, 7 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Twelve of these volatiles are reported for the first time in highbush blueberries, with 10 being positively identified: (Z)-3-hexenal, (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-nonedienal, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, and geranyl acetate. The dominant volatiles were aldehydes followed by terpenoids and esters, with distinct varietal profiles. 'Primadonna' was characterized by a large amount of esters and C-6 aldehydes. In contrast, fewer than 4 esters were found in 'FL02-40' and 'Snowchaser', respectively, but they produced more terpenoids than 'Primadonna' and 'Jewel'.
2.The fate of benzene-oxide.
Monks TJ1, Butterworth M, Lau SS. Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Mar 19;184(1-2):201-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.12.025. Epub 2009 Dec 29.
Metabolism is a prerequisite for the development of benzene-mediated myelotoxicity. Benzene is initially metabolized via cytochromes P450 (primarily CYP2E1 in liver) to benzene-oxide, which subsequently gives rise to a number of secondary products. Benzene-oxide equilibrates spontaneously with the corresponding oxepine valence tautomer, which can ring open to yield a reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, trans-trans-muconaldehyde (MCA). Further reduction or oxidation of MCA gives rise to either 6-hydroxy-trans-trans-2,4-hexadienal or 6-hydroxy-trans-trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid. Both MCA and the hexadienal metabolite are myelotoxic in animal models. Alternatively, benzene-oxide can undergo conjugation with glutathione (GSH), resulting in the eventual formation and urinary excretion of S-phenylmercapturic acid. Benzene-oxide is also a substrate for epoxide hydrolase, which catalyzes the formation of benzene dihydrodiol, itself a substrate for dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, producing catechol.
3.Use of TD-GC-TOF-MS to assess volatile composition during post-harvest storage in seven accessions of rocket salad (Eruca sativa).
Bell L1, Spadafora ND2, Müller CT2, Wagstaff C3, Rogers HJ2. Food Chem. 2016 Mar 1;194:626-36. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.043. Epub 2015 Aug 14.
An important step in breeding for nutritionally enhanced varieties is determining the effects of the post-harvest supply chain on phytochemicals and the changes in VOCs produced over time. TD-GC-TOF-MS was used and a technique for the extraction of VOCs from the headspace using portable tubes is described. Forty-two compounds were detected; 39 were identified by comparison to NIST libraries. Thirty-five compounds had not been previously reported in Eruca sativa. Seven accessions were assessed for changes in headspace VOCs over 7days. Relative amounts of VOCs across 3 time points were significantly different - isothiocyanate-containing molecules being abundant on 'Day 0'. Each accession showed differences in proportions/types of volatiles produced on each day. PCA revealed a separation of VOC profiles according to the day of sampling. Changes in VOC profiles over time could provide a tool for assessment of shelf life.
4.Change of volatile compounds in fresh fish meat during ice storage.
Miyasaki T1, Hamaguchi M, Yokoyama S. J Food Sci. 2011 Nov-Dec;76(9):C1319-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02388.x. Epub 2011 Oct 4.
The change of volatile compounds in fresh fish meat during 3- to 4-d ice storage was investigated for several fishes using an electronic nose system and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) with headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME). Principal component analyses for samples using the electronic nose system revealed that the increase of some volatile compounds during storage was rapid in sardine (Sardinops melanostictus), jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus); moderate in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and young oriental bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In contrast to these fishes, the change was little in "white meat" fishes such as red seabream (Chrysophrys major), Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus), puffer (Lagocephalus wheeleri), and bartail flathead (Platycephalus indicus). SPME-GC/MS analysis showed that some aldehydes and alcohols such as 1-heptanol, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-hexenal, 1-pentanol, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal,2,4-hexadienal, 1-hexanol, 4-heptenal, and so forth increased rapidly in jack mackerel and chub mackerel, slowly in skipjack, and a little in red seabream and puffer during the storage.