1.Recent trends in the metabolism and cell biology of vitamin K with special reference to vitamin K cycling and MK-4 biosynthesis.
Shearer MJ1, Newman P. J Lipid Res. 2014 Mar;55(3):345-62. doi: 10.1194/jlr.R045559. Epub 2014 Jan 31.
In contrast to other fat-soluble vitamins, dietary vitamin K is rapidly lost to the body resulting in comparatively low tissue stores. Deficiency is kept at bay by the ubiquity of vitamin K in the diet, synthesis by gut microflora in some species, and relatively low vitamin K cofactor requirements for γ-glutamyl carboxylation. However, as shown by fatal neonatal bleeding in mice that lack vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), the low requirements are dependent on the ability of animals to regenerate vitamin K from its epoxide metabolite via the vitamin K cycle. The identification of the genes encoding VKOR and its paralog VKOR-like 1 (VKORL1) has accelerated understanding of the enzymology of this salvage pathway. In parallel, a novel human enzyme that participates in the cellular conversion of phylloquinone to menaquinone (MK)-4 was identified as UbiA prenyltransferase-containing domain 1 (UBIAD1). Recent studies suggest that side-chain cleavage of oral phylloquinone occurs in the intestine, and that menadione is a circulating precursor of tissue MK-4.
2.Urinary excretion of vitamin K metabolites in term and preterm infants: relationship to vitamin K status and prophylaxis.
Harrington DJ1, Clarke P, Card DJ, Mitchell SJ, Shearer MJ. Pediatr Res. 2010 Dec;68(6):508-12. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181f981c7.
Little is known about the metabolic turnover and excretion of vitamin K in healthy newborn infants and the metabolic consequences of prophylactic regimens designed to protect against vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB). We measured the excretion of two urinary metabolites (≤ 24 h) of vitamin K (5C- and 7C-aglycones) in term infants before (n = 11) and after (n = 5) a 1000 μg i.m. dose of vitamin K1 (K1) and in preterm infants after 200 μg i.m. (n = 4), 500 μg i.m. (n = 4), or 200 μg i.v. (n = 5). In preterm infants, we also measured serum K1, vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide, and PIVKA-II at 5 d postpartum. Before prophylaxis, the rate of 5C- and 7C-aglycone excretion was 25 times lower than adults, reflecting low vitamin K stores at birth. After prophylaxis, the excretion rate correlated to K1 dose (r = 0.6) but was two orders of magnitude lower than that in adults, probably reflecting the immaturity of neonatal catabolism. All term and 10 of 13 preterm infants mainly excreted 5C-aglycone.
3.Ethnic differences in the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin.
Yuen E1, Gueorguieva I, Wise S, Soon D, Aarons L. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2010 Feb;37(1):3-24. doi: 10.1007/s10928-009-9138-4. Epub 2009 Nov 26.
Ethnic differences in warfarin maintenance doses have been documented amongst the three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Singapore. Studies have shown that cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) polymorphisms alone did not entirely account for these differences. Recent reports suggest that VKORC1 (subunit of vitamin K epoxide reductase) haplotypes are more predictive of warfarin response. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling techniques were employed to characterise the PK and PD of warfarin in a healthy volunteer study of 16 Chinese and Indian subjects following a single 25 mg dose of warfarin. To further investigate the underlying differences in warfarin response, a semi-mechanistic modelling approach (using an indirect response model for PCA activity) incorporating the vitamin K cycle was attempted using population methods with Bayesian inference. All eight Indian subjects had H7H7 VKORC1 haplotypes and three had either *2/wt or *3/wt CYP2C9 genotypes.
4.Novel insight into the mechanism of the vitamin K oxidoreductase (VKOR): electron relay through Cys43 and Cys51 reduces VKOR to allow vitamin K reduction and facilitation of vitamin K-dependent protein carboxylation.
Rishavy MA1, Usubalieva A, Hallgren KW, Berkner KL. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 4;286(9):7267-78. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.172213. Epub 2010 Oct 26.
The vitamin K oxidoreductase (VKOR) reduces vitamin K to support the carboxylation and consequent activation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, but the mechanism of reduction is poorly understood. VKOR is an integral membrane protein that reduces vitamin K using membrane-embedded thiols (Cys-132 and Cys-135), which become oxidized with concomitant VKOR inactivation. VKOR is subsequently reactivated by an unknown redox protein that is currently thought to act directly on the Cys132-Cys135 residues. However, VKOR contains evolutionarily conserved Cys residues (Cys-43 and Cys-51) that reside in a loop outside of the membrane, raising the question of whether they mediate electron transfer from a redox protein to Cys-132/Cys-135. To assess a possible role, the activities of mutants with Ala substituted for Cys (C43A and C51A) were analyzed in intact membranes using reductants that were either membrane-permeable or -impermeable. Both reductants resulted in wild type VKOR reduction of vitamin K epoxide; however, the C43A and C51A mutants only showed activity with the membrane-permeant reductant.