1.Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine ribonucleosides related to 2-aminoadenosine and isoguanosine: synthesis, deamination and tautomerism.
Seela F1, Xu K. Org Biomol Chem. 2007 Sep 21;5(18):3034-45. Epub 2007 Aug 14.
The syntheses and properties of 8-aza-7-deazapurine (pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) ribonucleosides related to 2-aminoadenosine and isoguanosine are described. Glycosylation of 8-aza-7-deazapurine-2,6-diamine 5 with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-D-ribofuranose (12) in the presence of BF(3) x Et(2)O as a catalyst gave the N(8) isomer 14 (73%) with a trace amount of the N(9) isomer 13a (4.8%). Under the same reaction conditions, the 7-halogenated 8-aza-7-deazapurine-2,6-diamines 6-8 afforded the thermodynamically more stable N(9) nucleosides 13b-d as the only products (53-70%). Thus, a halogen in position 7 shifts the glycosylation from N(8) to N(9). The 8-aza-7-deazapurine-4,6-diamine ribonucleosides 1a-d were converted to the isoguanosine derivatives 3a-d by diazotization of the 2-amino group. Although compounds 1a,b do not contain a nitrogen at position 7 (the enzyme binding site), they were deaminated by adenosine deaminase; however, their deamination occurred with a much slower velocity than that of the related purines.
2.7-deazainosine derivatives: synthesis and characterization of 7- and 7,8-substituted pyrrolo [2,3-d]pyrimidine ribonucleosides.
Ciliberti N1, Durini E, Manfredini S, Vertuani S. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2008 May;27(5):525-33. doi: 10.1080/15257770802089009.
The synthesis of model 7 deazapurine derivatives related to tubercidin and toyocamycin has been performed. Tubercidin derivatives were obtained by simple conversion of the amino group of the heterocyclic moiety of the starting 7-deazadenosine compounds, into a hydroxyl group. Preparation of toyocamycin derivatives was accomplished by treatment of the silylated 6-bromo-5-cyanopyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-d-ribofuranose. The glycosylation reaction afforded a mixture of 8-bromo 7-cyano 2',3',5' tri-O-benzoyl 7-deazainosine and 6-bromo-5-cyano-3-(2',3',5'-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-4-one isomers: The structures were assigned on the basis of NMR spectroscopy studies. Next deprotection treatment gave the novel 7-deazainosine ribonucleosides.
3.Synthesis and biological properties of chemically modified siRNAs bearing 1-deoxy-D-ribofuranose in their 3'-overhang region.
Taniho K1, Nakashima R, Kandeel M, Kitamura Y, Kitade Y. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Apr 1;22(7):2518-21. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.01.132. Epub 2012 Feb 11.
To elucidate the role of the sugar moiety in the two natural nucleotides of the 3'-overhang region of small interfering RNA (siRNA), we synthesized siRNAs that incorporated two abasic nucleosides, 1-deoxy-D-ribofuranose (R(H)). We improved the method for preparing an O-protected abasic nucleoside, 1-deoxy-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-ribofuranose, via the reductive cleavage of the anomeric position of 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-ribofuranose. To incorporate R(H) into oligonucleotides by the standard phosphoramidite solid phase method, R(H) was converted into its phosphoramidite derivative and the solid support linked to a controlled pore glass resin. Chemically modified RNAs possessing R(H) at the 3'-overhang region were easily prepared in good yields. siRNAs containing R(H) showed moderate nuclease-resistance and a desirable knockdown effect.
4.Novel method of synthesis of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosyl-ribonucleosides and their 3'-phosphoramidites.
Chmielewski MK, Markiewicz WT1. Molecules. 2013 Nov 29;18(12):14780-96. doi: 10.3390/molecules181214780.
Synthesis of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides [Nr(p)] of four common ribonucleosides, and 3'-phosphoramidites of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosyladenosine and 2'-O-ribosylguanosine using the H-phosphonate chemistry is described. An additional ring protected by benzoyl groups was incorporated into the main ribosyl ring in the reaction with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-ribofuranose in the presence of SnCl4. The obtained 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides (Nr) were applied in the subsequent transformations with selective deprotection. Ethanolamine was applied as a very convenient reagent for selective removal of benzoyl groups. Additionally, the tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl (TIPDSi) group was found to be stable under these deprotection conditions. Thus, the selectively deprotected 5''-hydroxyl group of Nr was transformed into an H-phosphonate monoester which was found to be stable under the following conditions: the removal of the TIPDSi group with triethylammonium fluoride and the dimethoxytritylation of the 5''-hydroxyl function.