1.Chlorogenic acid derivatives with alkyl chains of different lengths and orientations: potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.
Ma CM1, Hattori M, Daneshtalab M, Wang L. J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 9;51(19):6188-94. doi: 10.1021/jm800621x. Epub 2008 Sep 11.
Alpha-glucosidases play important roles in the digestion of carbohydrates and biosynthesis of viral envelope glycoproteins. Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase are promising candidates for the development of antitype II diabetics and anti-AIDS drugs. Here, we report the synthesis and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of mono- and diketal/acetal derivatives of chlorogenic acid. The diketal derivatives showed more potent inhibitory activity than the monoketals. The 1,7-(5-nonanone) 3,4-(5-nonanone)-chlorogenic acid diketal showed remarkable inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidases with potency better than that of 1-deoxynojirimycin hydrochloride. Four diasteremers of pelargonaldehyde diacetal and two of monoacetal derivatives of chlorogenic acid were synthesized in this study. They showed significant potent inhibition similar to or more potent than the ketal counterparts. Acetals with the alkyl chain oriented toward position 2 of chlorogenic acid showed more potent activity than those oriented toward position 6.
2.The pharmacological chaperone 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin increases alpha-galactosidase A levels in Fabry patient cell lines.
Benjamin ER1, Flanagan JJ, Schilling A, Chang HH, Agarwal L, Katz E, Wu X, Pine C, Wustman B, Desnick RJ, Lockhart DJ, Valenzano KJ. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2009 Jun;32(3):424-40. doi: 10.1007/s10545-009-1077-0. Epub 2009 Apr 18.
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A), with consequent accumulation of its major glycosphingolipid substrate, globotriaosylceramide (GL-3). Over 500 Fabry mutations have been reported; approximately 60% are missense. The iminosugar 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ, migalastat hydrochloride, AT1001) is a pharmacological chaperone that selectively binds alpha-Gal A, increasing physical stability, lysosomal trafficking, and cellular activity. To identify DGJ-responsive mutant forms of alpha-Gal A, the effect of DGJ incubation on alpha-Gal A levels was assessed in cultured lymphoblasts from males with Fabry disease representing 75 different missense mutations, one insertion, and one splice-site mutation. Baseline alpha-Gal A levels ranged from 0 to 52% of normal. Increases in alpha-Gal A levels (1.5- to 28-fold) after continuous DGJ incubation for 5 days were seen for 49 different missense mutant forms with varying EC(50) values (820 nmol/L to >1 mmol/L).
3.The pharmacological chaperone AT2220 increases the specific activity and lysosomal delivery of mutant acid alpha-glucosidase, and promotes glycogen reduction in a transgenic mouse model of Pompe disease.
Khanna R1, Powe AC Jr1, Lun Y1, Soska R1, Feng J1, Dhulipala R1, Frascella M1, Garcia A1, Pellegrino LJ1, Xu S1, Brignol N1, Toth MJ1, Do HV1, Lockhart DJ1, Wustman BA1, Valenzano KJ1. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 18;9(7):e102092. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102092. eCollection 2014.
Pompe disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder that results from a deficiency in acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity due to mutations in the GAA gene. Pompe disease is characterized by accumulation of lysosomal glycogen primarily in heart and skeletal muscles, which leads to progressive muscle weakness. We have shown previously that the small molecule pharmacological chaperone AT2220 (1-deoxynojirimycin hydrochloride, duvoglustat hydrochloride) binds and stabilizes wild-type as well as multiple mutant forms of GAA, and can lead to higher cellular levels of GAA. In this study, we examined the effect of AT2220 on mutant GAA, in vitro and in vivo, with a primary focus on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-retained P545L mutant form of human GAA (P545L GAA). AT2220 increased the specific activity of P545L GAA toward both natural (glycogen) and artificial substrates in vitro. Incubation with AT2220 also increased the ER export, lysosomal delivery, proteolytic processing, and stability of P545L GAA.
4.In vivo therapeutic protection against influenza A (H1N1) oseltamivir-sensitive and resistant viruses by the iminosugar UV-4.
Stavale EJ1, Vu H1, Sampath A2, Ramstedt U2, Warfield KL2. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 18;10(3):e0121662. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121662. eCollection 2015.
Our lead iminosugar analog called UV-4 or N-(9-methoxynonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin inhibits activity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) α-glucosidases I and II and is a potent, host-targeted antiviral candidate. The mechanism of action for the antiviral activity of iminosugars is proposed to be inhibition of ER α-glucosidases leading to misfolding of critical viral glycoproteins. These misfolded glycoproteins would then be incorporated into defective virus particles or targeted for degradation resulting in a reduction of infectious progeny virions. UV-4, and its hydrochloride salt known as UV-4B, is highly potent against dengue virus in vitro and promotes complete survival in a lethal dengue virus mouse model. In the current studies, UV-4 was shown to be highly efficacious via oral gavage against both oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant influenza A (H1N1) infections in mice even if treatment was initiated as late as 48-72 hours after infection.