1.Assessment of Fatty Acid Allocation in Plasma and Tissues in Piglets, Using Feed Supplemented with Byproducts from Processed Olive Mill Wastewater.
Gerasopoulos K1, Stagos D2, Krouezas A2, Karaveli C2, Barda C2, Gkika H2, Mitsiou D2, Petrotos K3, Goulas P3, Kouretas D4. In Vivo. 2016 05-06;30(3):291-301.
BACKGROUND/AIM: A previous study revealed the improvement of redox status in blood and tissues of young piglets (ablactation period), that consumed feed containing polyphenolic additives from byproducts of processed olive mill wastewater (OMWW). The polyphenolic additives strengthened the antioxidant defense of the piglets. Herein we analyzed the fatty acid (FA) composition of these animals in various tissues.
2.New Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors, Nalidixic Acid Linked to Isatin Schiff Bases via Certain l-Amino Acid Bridges.
Naglah AM1,2, Ahmed AF3,4, Wen ZH5, Al-Omar MA6, Amr Ael-G7,8, Kalmouch A9. Molecules. 2016 Apr 15;21(4). pii: E498. doi: 10.3390/molecules21040498.
A series of new Schiff bases were synthesized by condensation of isatins with the nalidixic acid-l-amino acid hydrazides. Prior to hydrazide formation, a peptide linkage has been prepared via coupling of nalidixic acid with appropriate l-amino acid methyl esters to yield 3a-c. The chemical structures of the new Schiff bases (5b and 5d-h) were confirmed by means of IR, NMR, mass spectroscopic, and elemental analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity of these Schiff bases was evaluated via measurement of the expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells model. The Schiff bases exhibited significant dual inhibitory effect against the induction of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins with variable potencies. However, they strongly down-regulated the iNOS expression to the level of 16.5% ± 7.4%-42.2% ± 19.6% compared to the effect on COX-2 expression (<56.
3.Novel double prodrugs of the iron chelator N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED): Synthesis, characterization, and investigation of activation by chemical hydrolysis and oxidation.
Thiele NA1, Abboud KA2, Sloan KB3. Eur J Med Chem. 2016 Apr 14;118:193-207. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.04.037. [Epub ahead of print]
The development of iron chelators suitable for the chronic treatment of diseases where iron accumulation and subsequent oxidative stress are implicated in disease pathogenesis is an active area of research. The clinical use of the strong chelator N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) and its alkyl ester prodrugs has been hindered by poor oral bioavailability and lack of conversion to the parent chelator, respectively. Here, we present novel double prodrugs of HBED that have the carboxylate and phenolate donors of HBED masked with carboxylate esters and boronic acids/esters, respectively. These double prodrugs were successfully synthesized as free bases (7a-f) or as dimesylate salts (8a-c,e), and were characterized by 1H, 13C, and 11B NMR; MP; MS; and elemental analysis. The crystal structure of 8a was solved. Three of the double prodrugs (8a-c) were selected for further investigation into their abilities to convert to HBED by stepwise hydrolysis and H2O2 oxidation.
4.Metabolism of α-linolenic acid during incubations with strained bovine rumen contents: products and mechanisms.
Honkanen AM1, Leskinen H1, Toivonen V1, McKain N2, Wallace RJ2, Shingfield KJ1. Br J Nutr. 2016 Apr 18:1-13. [Epub ahead of print]
Description of α-linolenic acid (cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-18 : 3, ALA) metabolism in the rumen is incomplete. Ruminal digesta samples were incubated with ALA and buffer containing water or deuterium oxide to investigate the products and mechanisms of ALA biohydrogenation. Geometric Δ9,11,15-18 : 3 isomers were the main intermediates formed from ALA. An increase in the n+1 isotopomers of Δ9,11,15-18 : 3 was due to 2H labelling at C-13. Isomers of Δ9,11,13-18 : 3, cis-7,cis-12,cis-15-18 : 3 and cis-8,cis-12,cis-15-18 : 3 were also formed. No increase in n+1 isotopomers of Δ7,12,15-18 : 3 or Δ8,12,15-18 : 3 was detected. Enrichment in n+2 isotopomers of 18 : 2 products indicated that ALA metabolism continued via the reduction of 18 : 3 intermediates. Isomers of Δ9,11,15-18 : 3 were reduced to Δ11,15-18 : 2 labelled at C-9 and C-13. ALA resulted in the formation of Δ11,13-18 : 2 and Δ12,14-18 : 2 containing multiple 2H labels. Enrichment of the n+3 isotopomer of Δ12,15-18 : 2 was also detected.