1.Discovery of (2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride (GAP-134)13, an orally active small molecule gap-junction modifier for the treatment of atrial fibrillation.
Butera JA1, Larsen BD, Hennan JK, Kerns E, Di L, Alimardanov A, Swillo RE, Morgan GA, Liu K, Wang Q, Rossman EI, Unwalla R, McDonald L, Huselton C, Petersen JS. J Med Chem. 2009 Feb 26;52(4):908-11. doi: 10.1021/jm801558d.
Rotigaptide (3) is an antiarrhythmic peptide that improves cardiac conduction by modifying gap-junction communication. Small molecule gap-junction modifiers with improved physical properties were identified from a Zealand Pharma peptide library using pharmaceutical profiling, established SAR around 3, and a putative pharmacophore model for rotigaptide. Activity of the compounds was confirmed in a mouse cardiac conduction block model of arrhythmia. Dipeptide 9f (GAP-134) was identified as a potent, orally active gap-junction modifier for clinical development.
2.GAP-134 ([2S,4R]-1-[2-aminoacetyl]4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid) prevents spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias and reduces infarct size during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in open-chest dogs.
Hennan JK1, Swillo RE, Morgan GA, Rossman EI, Kantrowitz J, Butera J, Petersen JS, Gardell SJ, Vlasuk GP. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Sep;14(3):207-14. doi: 10.1177/1074248409340779.
The antiarrhythmic dipeptide, GAP-134, ([2S,4R]-1[2-aminoacetyl]-4-benzamido-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid) was evaluated in canine ischemia/reperfusion model. In dogs subjected to 60-minute ischemia and 4-hour reperfusion, GAP-134 was administered 10 minutes before reperfusion as a bolus + intravenous (IV) infusion. The doses administered were 0.25 microg/kg bolus + 0.19 microg/kg per hour infusion; 2.5 microg/kg + 1.9 microg/kg per hour; 25 mg/kg + 19 mg/kg per hour; 75 mg/kg + 57 mg/kg per hour. Ventricular ectopy was quantified during reperfusion, including premature ventricular contractions (PVC) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Total incidence of VT was reduced significantly with the 2 highest doses of GAP-134 (1.7 + 0.8; 2.2 + 1.4 events; P < .05) compared to controls (23.0 + 6.1). Total PVCs were reduced significantly from 11.1 + 1.6% in control animals to 2.0% + 0.7% and 1.8% + 0.8% after the 2 highest doses of GAP-134. Infarct size, expressed as percentage of left ventricle, was reduced significantly from 19.