1.HPLC-FLD determination of NBD-cholesterol, its ester and other metabolites in cellular lipid extracts.
Cao XZ1, Mi TY, Li L, Vermeer MA, Zhang CC, Huang N, Manoj JK. Biomed Chromatogr. 2013 Jul;27(7):910-5. doi: 10.1002/bmc.2881. Epub 2013 Mar 25.
22-[N(-7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol), a fluorescent cholesterol analog, was an extragenous cholesterol tracer used to study cholesterol absorption and metabolism in cultured cells. In order to measure free intracellular cholesterol and its esters, a precise and sensitive method employing high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed for the first time. Method validation showed a limit of detection at 30 ng/mL. The calibration curve was linear within the range of 0.0625-10.0 µg/mL (r(2) = 0.999). Accuracy and precision were highlighted by good recovery and low variations. Apart from NBD-cholesteryl oleate, two additional cellular metabolites of NBD-cholesterol, probably an isomer and an oxidation product, were determined in the lipid extracts of Caco-2 human colon adenocarcinoma cells according to mass spectrometry. In AC29 mouse malignant mesothelioma cells overexpressing acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) or ACAT2, only the oxidized metabolite was detected.
2.Inhibitory effects of N-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-n-octyloxycinnamoyl)-N'-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)piperazine (YIC-C8-434), an acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase inhibitor, on cholesterol esterification in the intestine and liver.
Ohishi K1, Sawada H, Yoshida Y, Yokoi W, Hatano H, Aiyama R, Watanabe T, Yokokura T. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Aug;26(8):1125-8.
The effects of an acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, N-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-n-octyloxycinnamoyl)-N'-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)piperazine (YIC-C8-434), on cholesterol esterification in the intestine and liver were investigated in vitro and in vivo. YIC-C8-434 inhibited the formation of cholesteryl [(3)H]oleate from [(3)H]oleic acid and cholesterol both in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco2 cells and in human hepatoma HepG2 cells with IC(50) values of 0.38 and 0.49 microM, respectively. However, it did not influence the incorporation of [(3)H]oleic acid into triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Oral administration of YIC-C8-434 at a dose of 8.3 mg/kg/d inhibited [(14)C]cholesterol absorption by 17% (p<0.01) in rats. YIC-C8-434 also significantly reduced the secretion of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol from the liver into the plasma at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg/d after an intravenous injection of Triton WR-1339. These results suggest that oral administration of YIC-C8-434 reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption and hepatic VLDL cholesterol secretion by direct inhibition of ACAT in the intestinal epithelium and hepatocytes, respectively.
3.Structure-activity relationships of N-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-n-octyloxycinnamoyl)-N'-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)piperazine and analogues as inhibitors of acyl-CoA: cholesterol O-acyltransferase.
Ohishi K1, Aiyama R, Hatano H, Yoshida Y, Wada Y, Yokoi W, Sawada H, Watanabe T, Yokokura T. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 Jul;49(7):830-9.
A novel series of acyl-CoA: cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors were synthesized from a lead compound, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-phenylhept-1-en-3-one (1, Yakuchinone B) through a modification of three regions (A, B, C) in the molecule. In this study, the compounds prepared were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity on microsomal ACAT from the liver of rats and for in vivo hypocholesterolemic activity in rats given a high cholesterol diet. N-(3,5-Dimethoxy-4-n-octyloxycinnamoyl)-N'-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)piperazine (45), which belongs to the amide compounds, has finally been discovered. Compound 45 inhibited rat hepatic ACAT in a more striking manner than CI-976, an amide compound ACAT inhibitor, and it exhibited a high level of hypocholesterolemic activity in vivo. Since 45 strongly inhibited both microsomal ACAT prepared from HepG2 (a cell line derived from human hepatocarcinoma) and Caco2 (a cell line derived from human colon adenocarcinoma), there is speculation that 45 might have the ability to inhibit ACAT in both the human intestine and liver independent of the difference in the distribution of ACAT isozymes.
4.Modulation of triglyceride and cholesterol ester synthesis impairs assembly of infectious hepatitis C virus.
Liefhebber JM1, Hague CV1, Zhang Q2, Wakelam MJ2, McLauchlan J3. J Biol Chem. 2014 Aug 1;289(31):21276-88. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.582999. Epub 2014 Jun 10.
In hepatitis C virus infection, replication of the viral genome and virion assembly are linked to cellular metabolic processes. In particular, lipid droplets, which store principally triacylglycerides (TAGs) and cholesterol esters (CEs), have been implicated in production of infectious virus. Here, we examine the effect on productive infection of triacsin C and YIC-C8-434, which inhibit synthesis of TAGs and CEs by targeting long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase, respectively. Our results present high resolution data on the acylglycerol and cholesterol ester species that were affected by the compounds. Moreover, triacsin C, which blocks both triglyceride and cholesterol ester synthesis, cleared most of the lipid droplets in cells. By contrast, YIC-C8-434, which only abrogates production of cholesterol esters, induced an increase in size of droplets. Although both compounds slightly reduced viral RNA synthesis, they significantly impaired assembly of infectious virions in infected cells.