1.Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Three Main Active Ingredients of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides (Family: Chenopodiaceae) against Blattella germanica.
Zhu WX1, Zhao K, Chu SS, Liu ZL. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2012 Dec;6(2):90-7. Epub 2012 Dec 31.
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides flowering aerial parts and its three main active ingredients was evaluated against Blattella germanica male adults.
2.Combinations of ascaridole, carvacrol, and caryophyllene oxide against Leishmania.
Pastor J1, García M1, Steinbauer S2, Setzer WN3, Scull R4, Gille L2, Monzote L5. Acta Trop. 2015 May;145:31-8. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.02.002. Epub 2015 Feb 17.
To date there are no vaccines against Leishmania and chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the control of leishmaniasis. The drugs currently used for leishmaniasis therapy are significantly toxic, expensive, and result in a growing frequency of refractory infections. In this study, we evaluated the effect of combinations of the main components of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides (ascaridole, carvacrol, and caryophyllene oxide) against Leishmaniaamazonensis. Anti-leishmanial effects of combinations of pure compounds were evaluated in vitro and the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices were calculated. BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of ascaridole-carvacrol combinations by intralesional doses every 4 days. Disease progression and parasite burden in infected tissues were determined. In vitro experiments showed a synergistic effect of the combination of ascaridole-carvacrol against promastigotes of Leishmania with a FIC index of 0.
3.Evaluation of In Vivo Acaricidal Effect of Soap Containing Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides Leaves on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in the Western Highland of Cameroon.
Kouam MK1, Payne VK2, Miégoué E3, Tendonkeng F3, Lemoufouet J3, Kana JR3, Boukila B4, Pamo ET3, Mnm B3. J Pathog. 2015;2015:516869. doi: 10.1155/2015/516869. Epub 2015 Dec 6.
A study on the acaricidal properties of foam soap containing the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves was carried out on Rhipicephalus lunulatus. Four doses (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL of essential oil per gram of soap) and a control (soap without essential oil) with four replications for each treatment were used for in vitro trial. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in a Petri dish with filter paper impregnated with the foam soap on the bottom. Following in vitro trials, three doses (0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 µL/g) and the control in two replications were selected for in vivo test based on mortality rate recorded from the in vitro trial. Each replication was made up of 10 goats naturally infested with ticks. Results show that soap containing essential oil is toxic to R. lunulatus. The in vivo mortality rate in the control on day 8 was 22.69% whereas the highest dose (0.12 µL/g) killed 96.29% of the ticks on day 8. The LD50 of the foam soap containing essential oil was 0.
4.Comparative chemical, cytotoxicity and antileishmanial properties of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides.
Monzote L1, Nance MR, García M, Scull R, Setzer WN. Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Feb;6(2):281-6.
In countries where leishmaniasis is endemic, there are not very many treatment alternatives and most options have problems associated with their use. Plants and their natural products constitute good sources of interesting lead compounds that could be potentially active against Leishmania. Chenopodium ambrosioides is a plant that is widely used in popular medicine and its antiparasitic effects have been documented, including the antileishmanial potentialities of Chenopodium oil. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, in-vitro cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of essential oils extracted from C. ambrosioides, which received different treatments prior to extraction. The chemical characterization by GC-MS of the three essential oil samples showed similar composition and the major components were alpha-terpinene (17.0-20.7%), p-cymene (20.2-21.1%) and ascaridole (30.5-47.1%). The essential oils exhibited similar antileishmanial activities against intracellular amastigote form, with IC50 values between 4.