1. Concentrations and mass loadings of cardiovascular pharmaceuticals in healthcare facility wastewaters
Pranav Nagarnaik, Angela Batt and Bryan Boulanger*. J. Environ. Monit., 2010, 12, 2112–2119
At each location three analytes explain 60% or more of the total loading contributed by all measured analytes. Atenolol, valsartan, and hydrochlorothiazide contributed 78% of the total mass loading at the independent living facility; valsartan, atenolol, and norverapamil contributed 89% of the total mass loading at the assisted living facility; diltiazem, desmethyl diltiazem and metoprolol contributed 61% of the total mass loading at the nursing care facility; and valsartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and atenolol contributed 86% of the total mass loading at the hospital.
2. A tiered procedure for assessing the formation of biotransformation products of pharmaceuticals and biocides during activated sludge treatment
Susanne Kern, Rebekka Baumgartner, Kathrin Fenner*. J. Environ. Monit., 2010, 12, 2100–2111
We conducted two sampling campaigns and corresponding laboratory batch experiments, an overview of which is provided in Table S1 in the ESI. The goal of the ﬁrst campaign conducted in 2009 (C09) was the ﬁrst-tier, qualitative screening for TPs in batch reactors and the verification that the TPs found to form in the batch reactors could also be detected in the effluents of fullscale municipal WWTPs. Seven pharmaceuticals (atenolol, bezafibrate, ketoprofen, metoprolol, ranitidine, valsartan, and venlafaxine) and the biocide carbendazim were selected as test compounds because they represent structurally diverse chemical classes and had been detected in Swiss WWTP inﬂuents in the high ng L-1 to low mgL-1 range. Also, results of an earlier survey suggested that these compounds at least partially degraded during activated sludge treatment. The goal of the second campaign in 2010 (C10) was to evaluate the second, quantitative tier predicting effluent concentrations of selected, major TPs. Four pharmaceuticals (atenolol, metoprolol, ranitidine and valsartan) and three of their TPs (atenolol acid, ranitidine-S-oxide, and valsartan acid) were selected for quantitative analysis in accordance with the criteria laid out in Fig. 1. For these four pharmaceuticals comparison of levels at t ¼ 3 h (to account for fast sorption) and t= 24 h of the batch experiments indicated >20% transformation within that time span and chemical reference standards for quantification of their major TPs formed in the batch reactors could be made available.