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Abbreviation Description Abbreviation Description
ACC Acetyl-CoA carboxylase ITK Interleukin 2-inducible T cell kinase
AChE Acetylcholinesterase or acetylhydrolase JAK Janus kinase
ACK1 Activated CDC42 kinase 1 JNKs c-Jun N-terminal kinases
Akt Protein kinase B (PKB) KEAP1 Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1
ALDH Aldehyde dehydrogenase Nrf2 Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2
ALK Anaplastic lymphoma kinase KIR Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor
AMPAR α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor or AMPA receptor or quisqualate receptor KLF5 Kruppel like factor 5
AMPK AMP-activated protein kinase Ksp Kinesin spindle protein
ACE Angiotensin-converting Enzyme KMO Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase
APC Anaphase-Promoting Complex LAG3 Lymphocyte Activation Gene-3
ASK1 Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 LOXs Lipoxygenases
ATGL Adipose triglyceride lipase LPL Receptor Lysophospholipid receptor
ATM Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated LRRK2 Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2
BCRP Breast cancer resistance protein LSD1 Lysine-specific histone demethylase 1A or lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A
BTK Bruton's tyrosine kinase LXR Liver X receptor
BTLA B and T lymphocyte attenuator LFA-1 Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1
CaMK-II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mAChR Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors
CaSR Calcium-sensing receptor MAGL Monoacylglycerol lipase
CCKBR Cholecystokinin B receptor or CCK2 MALT1 Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1
Cdc7 Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase MAPKAPK2 (MK2) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2
CDK Cyclin dependent kinases MCH1 Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1
CAMs Cell adhesion molecules MCTs Monocarboxylate transporters
CENP-E Centromere-associated protein E MDM-2 Mouse double minute 2 homolog or E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2
CETP Cholesteryl ester transfer protein MAP2K, MEK, MAPKK Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
CSF1R or c-FMS Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor MELK Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase
CFTR Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator or ABCC7 mGluR Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinaseMetabotropic glutamate receptor
CGRP Receptor Neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide MMPs Matrix metalloproteinases
Chk Checkpoint Kinase MAO Monoamine Oxidase
CCKA Cholecystokinin A MAOB Monoamine Oxidase B
CK1 Casein kinase 1 MPO Myeloperoxidase
CK2 Casein kinase 2 mTOR Mechanistic target of rapamycin
c-Met/HGFR Tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor MyD88 Myeloid differentiation primary response 88
CMV Cytomegalovirus nAChR Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
COMT Catechol-O-methyltransferase NAE NEDD8-activating enzyme
CRF Corticotropin-releasing factor Nampt Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase
COX Cyclooxygenase NF-κB Nuclear factor-κB
CRAC Channel Calcium release-activated channel NOS Nitric oxide synthase
CRTH2 (GPR44) Prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 NNRTIs Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
CTLA4 or CD152 Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated protein 4 NLRs NOD-like Receptors
CYP450 Cytochrome P450 NRTIs Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
DAPK Death-associated protein kinase PAKs p21-activated Kinases
DDRs Discoidin domain receptors PACAP Receptors Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptors
DGAT Diglyceride acyltransferase or O-acyltransferase PAI-1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
DHODH Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase PD-1 Programmed Death 1
DNA-PK Dihydroorotate dehydrogenaseDNA-dependent protein kinase PDE4 Phosphodiesterase 4
DNMTs DNA methyltransferases PDGFR Platelet-derived growth factor receptors
DPP4 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 PDHK pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases
DUBs Deubiquitinating enzymes PDK-1 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1
DYRKs Dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases PGE Synthase Prostaglandin E synthase
EBI2/GPR183 G-protein coupled receptor 183 or Epstein-Barr virus-induced G-protein coupled receptor 2 PI3K Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase
EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor PI4K Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase
ERK Extracellular signal-regulated kinase PIKfyve Phosphoinositide 5-kinase
ERR Estrogen Receptor PKC Protein kinase C
EZH2 Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 PKD Protein kinase D
FAAH Fatty acid amide hydrolase PAF-R Platelet-activating factor receptor
FAK Focal adhesion kinase PLK Polo-like Kinase
FAS Fatty acid synthase KCNA3 Potassium voltage-gated channel
FGFR Fibroblast growth factor receptor PPARs Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
FLAP Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein or 5-lipoxygenase activating protein PARs Protease-Activated Receptors
FLT3 Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 PTPN11 Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11
FXR Farnesoid X receptor RARs Retinoic acid receptors
GABA Receptor γ-aminobutyric acid receptor RGS Regulator of G protein signaling
GHSR Growth hormone secretagogue receptor RSK Ribosomal S6 Kinase
GIP Receptor Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor RIP kinase Receptor-interacting protein kinase
GITR Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene ROCK Rho kinase
GLP-1 Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 SIKs Salt-inducible Kinases
GLP-2 Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 SARS-CoV SARS coronavirus
GlyR Glycine receptor SARMs Selective androgen receptor modulators
gp130 Glycoprotein 130 SFRP Secreted frizzled-related protein
GNRH Receptor Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor SGLT Sodium‐dependent glucose transporter
GPCR19 G-protein coupled receptor 19 SRPK Serine-arginine protein kinase
GPR119 G protein-coupled receptor 119 SSRIs Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
GPR40 Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) SCD Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase
GPR55 G protein-coupled receptor 55 Syk Spleen tyrosine kinase
GSK-3 Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 TAK1 Transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1
GSNOR S-nitrosoglutathione reductase TDO Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
HBV Hepatitis B virus TGF-beta Transforming growth factor-β
HCN Channel Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel TRH Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
HCV Hepatitis C virus TIGIT T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains
HDAC Histone deacetylases TIM3 T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3
HO Heme oxygenase/haem oxygenase TNF Tumor necrosis factor
HHLA2 HERV–HLTR-associating protein 2 TLR Toll-like Receptor
HIFs Hypoxia-inducible factors TAAR1 Trace amine-associated receptor 1
HATs Histone Acetyltransferases TRP Transient receptor potential
HMGCR HMG-CoA Reductase TPH Tryptophan hydroxylase
HSP Heat-shock proteins TSH receptor Thyrotropin receptor
HSV Herpes simplex viruse TSPO Translocator protein
IAPs Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins VIP receptors Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors
IDO Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase VDR Vitamin D receptor
IFNAR Interferon-α/β receptor VDACs Voltage-dependent anion channels
IGF-1R Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor VEGFR Vascular endothelial growth factor
IKK IκB kinase VMAT2 Vesicular monoamine transporter 2
IRAK Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase VISTA V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation
IRE1 Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 WDR5 WD repeat-containing protein 5
IDH Isocitrate Dehydrogenase XAO Xanthine oxidase
Products / Ligands        
Abbreviation Description Abbreviation Description
acac Acetylacetone HMPT Hexamethylphosphorous Triamide
AIBN 2,2'-Azobis(isobutyronitrile) HOAt 1-Hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole
BINAP 2,2'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl HOBt 1-Hydroxybenzotriazole
BINOL Binaphthol MCPBA m-Chloroperoxybenzoic Acid
BSA N,O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide MEK Methyl Ethyl Ketone
CD Cyclodextrin NBS N-Bromosuccinimide
CSA Camphorsulfonic Acid NCS N-Chlorosuccinimide
DABCO 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane NIS N-Iodosuccinimide
DAST (Diethylamino)sulfur Trifluoride NMO 4-Methylmorpholine N-Oxide
DBU 1,8-Diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-7-undecene Pc Phthalocyanine
DCC N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide PCC Pyridinium Chlorochromate
DEAD Diethyl Azodicarboxylate PDC Pyridinium Dichromate
DHP 3,4-Dihydro-2H-pyran PEG Polyethylene Glycol
DMA N,N-Dimethylacetamide PG Prostaglandin
DMAP 4-Dimethylaminopyridine PPTS Pyridinium p-Toluenesulfonate
DMF N,N-Dimethylformamide SDS Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
dmit 4,5-Dimercapto-1,3-dithiole-2-thione TBAF Tetrabutylammonium Fluoride
DMSO Dimethyl Sulfoxide TCNQ 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane
DOXYL 4,4-Dimethyloxazolidine-1-oxyl TEMPO 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl
dppf 1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphinoferrocene) TFA Trifluoroacetic Acid
DVB Divinylbenzene THF Tetrahydrofuran
EDC 3-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-1-ethylcarbodiimide THP Tetrahydropyran
EDTA Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid TMTSF Tetramethyltetraselenafluvalene
Fc Ferrocene TNBS 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
HMDS 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexamethyldisilazane TPD N,N'-Diphenyl-N,N'-di(m-tolyl)benzidine
HMPA Hexamethylphosphoric Triamide TTF Tetrathiafulvalene
Protecting Groups / Functional Groups    
Abbreviation Description Abbreviation Description
Ac Acetyl- Nps 2-Nitrophenylsulfenyl-
Alloc Allyloxycarbonyl- Ns Nitrobenzenesulfonyl-
Bn Benzyl- PMB p-Methoxybenzyl-
Boc tert- -Butoxycarbonyl- SEM 2-(Trimethylsilyl)ethoxymethyl-
Bz Benzoyl- TBDMS tert-Butyldimethylsilyl- (=TBS-)
Cbz Carbobenzoxy- (=Benzyloxycarbonyl-) TES Triethylsilyl-
Dnp 2,4-Dinitrophenyl- Tf Trifluoromethanesulfonyl-
Fmoc (9H-Fluoren-9-ylmethoxy)carbonyl- TIPS Triisopropylsilyl-
MEM (2-Methoxyethoxy)methyl- TMS Trimethylsilyl-
Mes 2,4,6-Trimethylphenyl- (=Mesityl-) Tr Triphenylmethyl- (=Trityl-)
MOM Methoxymethyl- Ts p-Toluenesulfonyl- (=Tosyl-)
Ms Methanesulfonyl- Z =Cbz-
Greek letters        
Abbreviation Description Abbreviation Description
α alpha ν nu
β beta ξ xi
γ gamma ο omicron
δ delta π pi
ε epsilon ρ rho
ζ zeta σ sigma
η eta τ tau
θ theta υ upsilon
ι iota φ phi
κ kappa χ chi
λ lambda ψ psi
μ mu ω omega
Abbreviation Description Abbreviation Description
o- ortho erythro- erythro form
m- meta D- D form
p- para L- L form
n- normal DL- DL form
prim- primary d- or (+)- dextro rotation
sec- secondary l- or (-)- levo rotation
tert- tertiary dl- or (±)- racemic mixture
B- boron position (R)- R (rectus) form
N- nitrogen position (S)- S (sinister) form
O- oxygen position meso- meso form
P- phosphorus position syn- syn form
S- sulfur position anti- anti form
cis- cis form asym- asymmetric form
trans- trans form s- or sym- symmetric form
(Z)- Z (zusammen) form active- active form
(E)- E (entgegen) form leuco- leuco form
threo- threo form
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