1.On the synthesis of the 2,6-dideoxysugar L-digitoxose.
Timmons SC1, Jakeman DL. Carbohydr Res. 2007 Dec 28;342(18):2695-704. Epub 2007 Oct 5.
As deoxysugars are integral components of many natural products, the development of efficient chemical and enzymatic routes to prepare these compounds is of particular interest. Herein, we report a comparison of several synthetic methodologies used to prepare protected derivatives of the 2,6-dideoxysugar l-digitoxose. A novel, stereoselective synthetic route to efficiently access methyl 4-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,6-dideoxy-3-O-trimethylsilyl-alpha-l-ribo-hexopyranoside in 35% yield over nine facile steps is described.
2.Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric fragmentation study of flavonoids as their trimethylsilyl derivatives: analysis of flavonoids, sugars, carboxylic and amino acids in model systems and in citrus fruits.
Füzfai Z1, Molnár-Perl I. J Chromatogr A. 2007 May 11;1149(1):88-101. Epub 2007 Jan 25.
The fragmentation patterns and quantitation possibilities of three anthocyanidins (pelargonidin, cyanidin, malvidin), one flavonol (quercetin), two flavones (apigenin, luteolin) and two flavanones (naringenin, hesperetin) have been investigated as trimethylsilyl and as trimethylsilyl (oxime) derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results proved that anthocyanidins and flavanones form trimethylsilyl (oximes), while flavonol and flavones provide simple trimethylsilyl derivatives. In all cases, characteristic fragments of high masses are formed proper for quantitation purposes. Hydrolysis conditions for naringin, hesperidin and rutin have been optimized, resulting in the quantitative release of naringenin, hesperetin and quercetin together with their corresponding saccharides. These basic studies made possible the identification and quantification of the flavonoid, carboxylic-/amino acid and sugar constituents of citrus fruit juices and albedos, without any extraction/enrichment procedure.
3.L-Altruronic acid formed by epimerization of D-galacturonic acid methyl esters during saponification of citrus pectin.
Zhan D1, Qiu F, Mort AJ. Carbohydr Res. 2001 Feb 15;330(3):357-63.
While searching for oligosaccharides containing rhamnose residues in the endopolygalacturonase (EPG) digest of saponified citrus pectin, we found several oligomers containing, in addition to galacturonic acid, a sugar previously unreported in pectin. The 1- and 2-D 1H NMR spectra of the oligosaccharides were consistent with the sugar being a uronic acid with its 2- and 3-hydroxyls being axial and 4-hydroxyl being equatorial. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that the oligomers consisted solely of uronic acids. Reduction of the uronic acids in the oligosaccharides converted them to galactose and altrose. The altrose was found to be the L enantiomer by comparison of its trimethylsilyl (-)-2-butyl glycosides to those of authentic D-altrose and a racemic mixture. The sugar was not found in oligosaccharides prepared from EPG digestion of citrus pectin deesterified with pectin methylesterase rather than saponification. Thus, it appears that during saponification, a small proportion of the methylesterified galacturonic acid residues in pectins is epimerized at C-5 leading to formation of L-altruronic acid residues.
4.Synthesis of beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->2)-[beta-L-Xylp-(1-->4)]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap, the repeating unit of the O-antigen produced by Pseudomonas solanacearum ICMP 7942.
Zhang J1, Kong F. Carbohydr Res. 2003 Jan 2;338(1):19-27.
An efficient synthesis of beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->2)-[beta-L-Xylp-(1-->4)]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap, the repeating unit of the O-antigen produced by Pseudomonas solanacearum ICMP 7942 and its isomer beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->4)-[beta-L-Xylp-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rhap was achieved via sequential assembly of the building blocks, allyl 2,3-O-isopropylidene-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), allyl 3,4-O-isopropylidene-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (3), allyl 2,4-di-O-benzoyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (6), 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-phthalimido-beta-D-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate (7), and 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-beta-L-xylopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate (12). The process was carried out in a regio- and stereoselective manner using glycosyl trichloroacetimidates as donors and unprotected or partially protected rhamnopyranosides as acceptors in the presence of a catalytic amount of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf).