Main Product
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Catalog Number:
2,4-Azetidinedicarboxylicacid,(2R,4R)-rel-(9CI); (±)-trans-Azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid,96%
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Data not available, please inquire.
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Reference Reading

1.Antagonists for group I mGluRs attenuate excitotoxic neuronal death in cortical cultures.
Strasser U1, Lobner D, Behrens MM, Canzoniero LM, Choi DW. Eur J Neurosci. 1998 Sep;10(9):2848-55.
Activation of ion channel-linked glutamate receptors, especially N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, mediates the excitotoxic effects of glutamate upon central neurons. We examined the hypothesis that activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) would increase NMDA receptor-mediated cortical neuronal death. Addition of the selective group I mGluR agonists, dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) or trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (t-ADA) potentiated NMDA-induced neuronal death, and application of the group I mGluR-selective antagonist, aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA), as well as the non-selective antagonists methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) or 4-carboxyphenylglycine (4CPG) reduced NMDA- and kainate-induced neuronal death in murine cortical cultures. The pro-excitotoxic effect of group I mGluR activation may be mediated largely by enhancement of glutamate release, as DHPG potentiated high potassium-stimulated glutamate release, and the protective effects of both AIDA and MCPG were abolished when NMDA and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) receptors were blocked immediately after toxic NMDA receptor overstimulation.
2.Presynaptic group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors may contribute to the expression of long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region.
Manahan-Vaughan D1, Herrero I, Reymann KG, Sánchez-Prieto J. Neuroscience. 1999;94(1):71-82.
In this study, we investigated the possible contribution of presynaptic group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor activation to changes in synaptic efficacy by means of analysis of glutamate release in hippocampal synaptosomes. Data were interpreted in the context of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor involvement in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of freely moving rats. In synaptosomes, 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine enhanced diacylglycerol formation and facilitated vesicular Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release, whereas trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid had no effect on these processes. Trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid enhanced glutamate release, but in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. This effect was mimicked by the L-glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid. (R,S)-alpha-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine blocked the effects of 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, but not trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid in synaptosomes.
3.In vitro characterization of [3H]MethoxyPyEP, an mGluR5 selective radioligand.
Patel S1, Krause SM, Hamill T, Chaudhary A, Burns DH, Gibson RA. Life Sci. 2003 Jun 6;73(3):371-9.
We have characterized the in vitro properties of 3-[3H]methoxy-5-(pyridin-2-ylethynyl)pyridine ([3H]MethoxyPyEP), an analogue of the mGluR(5) receptor subtype antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine], in rat tissue preparations using tissue homogenates and autoradiography. Binding of [3H]MethoxyPyEP to rat cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum membrane preparations revealed saturable, high affinity binding (3.4 +/- 0.4 nM, n = 4 in rat cortex) to a single population of receptors in all regions studied except for cerebellum. Binding was found to be relatively insensitive to pH and insensitive to DTT. High concentrations of NEM both reduce receptor concentration and binding affinity for the radioligand. In time-course studies at room temperature k(on) and k(off) were determined as 2.9 x 10(7) M(-1) min(-1) and 0.11 min(-1) respectively. The rank order of affinities, as assessed by equilibrium competition studies, of a variety of ligands suggested binding of the radioligand selectively to mGluR5 (MPEP > trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid congruent with (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine congruent with (+)MK801 congruent with CP-101,606 congruent with clozapine congruent with atropine congruent with ketanserin congruent with yohimbine congruent with benoxathian).
4.Modulation of defensive responses and anxiety-like behaviors by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors located in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray.
Lima VC1, Molchanov ML, Aguiar DC, Campos AC, Guimarães FS. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan 1;32(1):178-85. Epub 2007 Aug 15.
Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) is related to defensive responses. However, the role of group I glutamate metabotropic receptors (mGluR) in these responses has been poorly investigated. The objective of the present study, therefore, was to test the hypothesis that interference with group I mGluR-mediated neurotransmission in dlPAG could modulate defensive responses. Male Wistar rats with cannulae aimed at the dlPAG were submitted to the following experiments: 1. intra dlPAG injections of vehicle (veh, 0.2 microL) or (RS)1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, 30-100 nmol, an mGluR1 receptor competitive antagonist) followed, 5 min later, by veh or trans-(+)-1-amino-1,3-ciclopentanedicarboxylic acid (tACPD, a group I and II mGluR agonist, 30 nmol); 2. intra-dlPAG injections of veh, AIDA (30 nmol) or 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP, an mGluR5 receptor non-competitive antagonist, 50 nmol) followed by trans-azetidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (tADA, a group I mGluR agonist, 10 nmol); 3.