1.A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.
Rafiee-Yarandi H1, Ghorbani GR1, Alikhani M1, Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi A1, Drackley JK2. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Apr 13. pii: S0022-0302(16)30170-9. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10546. [Epub ahead of print]
To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9 ± 3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C.
2.Fatty acid metabolism is altered in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis independent of obesity.
Walle P1, Takkunen M1, Männistö V2, Vaittinen M1, Lankinen M1, Kärjä V3, Käkelä P4, Ågren J5, Tiainen M6, Schwab U7, Kuusisto J2, Laakso M2, Pihlajamäki J8. Metabolism. 2016 May;65(5):655-66. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2016.01.011. Epub 2016 Jan 23.
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with changes in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. However, specific changes in metabolism and hepatic mRNA expression related to NASH independent of simple steatosis, obesity and diet are unknown.
3.Impaired insulin action in the liver, but not in adipose tissue or muscle, is a distinct metabolic feature of impaired fasting glucose in obese humans.
Ter Horst KW1, Gilijamse PW1, Ackermans MT2, Soeters MR1, Nieuwdorp M3, Romijn JA4, Serlie MJ5. Metabolism. 2016 May;65(5):757-63. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2016.02.010. Epub 2016 Feb 24.
AIM: Elevated basal endogenous glucose production (EGP), impaired suppression of EGP by insulin and reduced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal are cornerstones of the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine the contribution of these processes to impaired fasting glucose (IFG) levels in obese non-diabetic adults.
4.Spiral crack patterns observed for melt-grown spherulites of poly(L-lactic acid) upon quenching.
Matsuda F1, Sobajima T1, Irie S2, Sasaki T3. Eur Phys J E Soft Matter. 2016 Apr;39(4):41. doi: 10.1140/epje/i2016-16041-6. Epub 2016 Apr 19.
In this paper, we demonstrate the characteristic spiral cracking that appears on the surface of melt-grown poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) spherulites with relatively large sizes (greater than 0.4mm in diameter). The crack occurs via thermal shrinkage upon quenching after crystallization. Although concentric cracks on polymer spherulites have been found to occur in quite a few studies, spiral crack patterns have never been reported so far. The present spiral crack was observed for thick spherulites (> 10 μm), whereas the concentric crack pattern was frequently observed for thin spherulites (typically 5μm). The present PLLA spherulites exhibited a non-banded structure with no apparent structural periodicity at least on the scale of the spiral pitch, and thus no direct correlation between the crack pattern and the spherulitic structure was suggested. The spiral was revealed to be largely Archimedean of which the spiral pitch increases with an increase in the thickness of the spherulite.