1.Effects of endogenous signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the mechanism regulating genistein synthesis and accumulation in yellow lupine and their impact on plant cell cytoskeleton.
Formela M1, Samardakiewicz S2, Marczak Ł3, Nowak W4, Narożna D5, Bednarski W6, Kasprowicz-Maluśki A7, Morkunas I8. Molecules. 2014 Aug 29;19(9):13392-421. doi: 10.3390/molecules190913392.
The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk interactions of soluble sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) and infection caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lupini on the synthesis of genistein in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L.cv. Juno. Genistein is a free aglycone, highly reactive and with the potential to inhibit fungal infection and development of plant diseases. As signal molecules, sugars strongly stimulated accumulation of isoflavones, including genistein, and the expression of the isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes. Infection significantly enhanced the synthesis of genistein and other isoflavone aglycones in cells of embryo axes of yellow lupine with high endogenous sugar levels. The activity of β-glucosidase, the enzyme that releases free aglycones from their glucoside bindings, was higher in the infected tissues than in the control ones. At the same time, a very strong generation of the superoxide anion radical was observed in tissues with high sugar contents already in the initial stage of infection.
2.Production of a bioflocculant by Aspergillus parasiticus and its application in dye removal.
Deng S1, Yu G, Ting YP. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2005 Sep;44(4):179-86.
Aspergillus parasiticus was found to produce a bioflocculant with high flocculating activity for Kaolin suspension and water-soluble dyes. Results showed that the carbon and nitrogen sources favorable for the production of the bioflocculant were corn starch and peptone, and an optimal condition of 28 degrees C, initial pH 5-6 and shaking speed of 150 rpm. The highest flocculating efficiency achieved for Kaolin suspension was 98.1%, after 72 h cultivation. The bioflocculant was mainly composed of sugar (76.3%) and protein (21.6%), and an average molecular weight of 3.2x10(5) Da. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that amino, amide and hydroxyl groups were present in the bioflocculant molecules. The bioflocculant was effective in flocculating some soluble anionic dyes in aqueous solution, in particular Reactive Blue 4 and Acid Yellow 25 with a decolorization efficiency of 92.4 and 92.
3.Induction of CMV-1 promoter by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in human embryonic kidney cells.
Jaganjac M1, Matijevic T, Cindric M, Cipak A, Mrakovcic L, Gubisch W, Zarkovic N. Acta Biochim Pol. 2010;57(2):179-83. Epub 2010 May 31.
Oxidative stress, i.e., excessive production of oxygen free radicals and reactive oxygen species, leads to lipid peroxidation and to formation of reactive aldehydes which act as second messengers of free radicals. It has previously been shown that oxidative stress may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early promoter, involved in viral reactivation from latency. In the current study we used a plasmid containing the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) gene under the control of CMV-1 promoter to monitor the influence of hydrogen peroxide and reactive aldehydes, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and acrolein, on CMV-1 promoter activation in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). While acrolein was ineffective, hydrogen peroxide slightly (50 %) stimulated the CMV promoter. In contrast, HNE had a strong, up to 3-fold, enhancing effect on the CMV-1 promoter within four as well as after 24h of treatment. The most effective was the treatment with 24 microM HNE.
4.Interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles with the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium: growth inhibition, oxidative stress and internalization.
Xia B1, Chen B2, Sun X2, Qu K2, Ma F2, Du M2. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 1;508:525-33. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.066. Epub 2014 Dec 5.
The toxicity of TiO2 engineered nanoparticles (NPs) to the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium was investigated by examining growth inhibition, oxidative stress and uptake. The results indicated that the toxicity of TiO2 particles to algal cells significantly increased with decreasing nominal particle size, which was evidenced by the 96 EC50 values of 88.78, 118.80 and 179.05 mg/L for 21 nm, 60 nm and 400 nm TiO2 particles, respectively. The growth rate was significantly inhibited when the alga was exposed to 5mg/L TiO2 NPs (21 nm). Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were first induced and subsequently inhibited following exposure to 5mg/L TiO2 NPs. The depletion of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) posed a hazard to membrane integrity. A combination of flow cytometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy and Ti content measurement indicated that TiO2 NPs were internalized in N.