Reactive Blue 221 - CAS 93051-41-3
Main Product
Product Name:
Reactive Blue 221
Catalog Number:
C.I. Reactive Blue 221; Synazol Blue KR; Reactive Blue 221
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:

Reference Reading

1.Semiconductor-assisted photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution.
Gouvêa CA1, Wypych F, Moraes SG, Durán N, Nagata N, Peralta-Zamora P. Chemosphere. 2000 Feb;40(4):433-40.
This work reports the semiconductor-assisted photochemical degradation of reactive dyes. In an oxygenated-UV-ZnO system almost total decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Black B, Reactive Blue 221 and Reactive Blue 222 was observed in reaction times of about 60 min. Extending the photochemical treatment up to 120 min, mineralization higher than 80% for all the dyes was observed. During the same period, the residual acute toxicity was significantly reduced only for Remazol Black B. A systematic optimization study carried out by factorial design showed that for the reactive dyes tested, the ZnO semiconductor exhibits a better efficiency than that observed with anatase TiO2. A synergistic effect in the coupled TiO2-ZnO system was not observed.
2.Optimization of laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus IMI 395545 using the Taguchi DOE methodology.
Periasamy R1, Palvannan T. J Basic Microbiol. 2010 Dec;50(6):548-56. doi: 10.1002/jobm.201000095.
Production of laccase using a submerged culture of Pleurotus orstreatus IMI 395545 was optimized by the Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiments (DOE) methodology. This approach facilitates the study of the interactions of a large number of variables spanned by factors and their settings, with a small number of experiments, leading to considerable savings in time and cost for process optimization. This methodology optimizes the number of impact factors and enables to calculate their interaction in the production of industrial enzymes. Eight factors, viz. glucose, yeast extract, malt extract, inoculum, mineral solution, inducer (1 mM CuSO₄) and amino acid (l-asparagine) at three levels and pH at two levels, with an OA layout of L18 (2¹ × 3⁷) were selected for the proposed experimental design. The laccase yield obtained from the 18 sets of fermentation experiments performed with the selected factors and levels was further processed with Qualitek-4 software.
3.Increase in mutation frequency in lung of Big Blue rat by exposure to diesel exhaust.
Sato H1, Sone H, Sagai M, Suzuki KT, Aoki Y. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Apr;21(4):653-61.
Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is known to cause lung tumors in rats. To clarify the mutagenicity of DE, we estimated mutant frequency (MF) and determined the mutation spectra in rat lung after exposure to DE using lambda/lacI transgenic rats (Big Blue system). Male Big Blue rats (6 weeks old) were exposed for 4 weeks to 1 or 6 mg/m(3) DE, which contains suspended particulate matter. Control rats were maintained in filtered clean air. After exposure to 6 mg/m(3) DE, MF in lung was 4.8-fold higher than in control rats (P < 0.01), but no increase in MF was observed in rats exposed to 1 mg/m(3) DE. Sixty-nine mutants were identified after exposure to 6 mg/m(3) DE. The major mutations were A:T-->G:C (18 mutations) and G:C-->A:T (19 mutations) transitions. Remarkably, G-->T transversion of the lacI gene at site 221 was a hot-spot induced by exposure to DE, and there were complex mutations in which multiple mutations occurred in a single mutant, especially in the rats exposed to 6 mg/m(3) DE.
4.Synthesis of polyamine flocculants and their potential use in treating dye wastewater.
Yue QY1, Gao BY, Wang Y, Zhang H, Sun X, Wang SG, Gu RR. J Hazard Mater. 2008 Mar 21;152(1):221-7. Epub 2007 Jun 30.
Polyamine flocculants were synthesized by the polycondensation of dimethylamine and epichlorohydrin, in which organic amines, e.g. 1,2-diaminoethane, were used as modifying agents. Different products were obtained by varying the reaction parameters, such as the molar ratio of epichlorohydrin to dimethylamine, the amount of 1,2-diaminoethane and reaction temperature. The polyamine flocculants were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Their flocculation performance was evaluated with simulated dye liquor and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The behavior of the flocculants was compared with that of inorganic coagulant, polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The experimental results show that polyamine with the highest viscosity and cationicity could be prepared under following conditions: an epichlorohydrin to dimethylamine molar ratio of 1.5, a reaction temperature of 70 degrees C, a 3% content of 1,2-diaminoethane in the total reaction monomers and a reaction time of 7h.