1.Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.
Carhart-Harris RL1, Muthukumaraswamy S2, Roseman L3, Kaelen M4, Droog W5, Murphy K5, Tagliazucchi E6, Schenberg EE7, Nest T8, Orban C3, Leech R9, Williams LT4, Williams TM10, Bolstridge M4, Sessa B11, McGonigle J4, Sereno MI12, Nichols D13, Hellyer PJ9, Hobden P5, Evans J5, Singh KD5, Wise RG5, Curran HV14, Feilding A15, Nutt DJ4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Apr 11. pii: 201518377. [Epub ahead of print]
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however.
2.Effects of Breast Shielding During Heart Imaging on DNA Double-Strand-Break Levels: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.
Cheezum MK1, Redon CE1, Burrell AS1, Kaviratne AS1, Bindeman J1, Maeda D1, Balmakhtar H1, Pezel A1, Wisniewski P1, Delacruz P1, Nguyen B1, Bonner WM1, Villines TC1. Radiology. 2016 Apr 15:152301. [Epub ahead of print]
Purpose To examine the effect of breast shielding on blood lymphocyte deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand-break levels resulting from in vivo radiation and ex vivo radiation at breast-tissue level, and the effect of breast shielding on image quality. Materials and Methods The study was approved by institutional review and commpliant with HIPAA guidelines. Adult women who underwent 64-section coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography and who provided informed consent were prospectively randomized to the use (n = 50) or absence (n = 51) of bismuth breast shields. Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and 30 minutes after in vivo radiation during CT angiography to compare DNA double-strand-break levels by γ-H2AX immunofluorescence in blood lymphocytes. To estimate DNA double-strand-break induction at breast-tissue level, a blood sample was taped to the sternum for ex vivo radiation with or without shielding. Data were analyzed by linear regression and independent sample t tests.
3.Antioxidant capacity of different cheeses: Affecting factors and prediction by near infrared spectroscopy.
Revilla I1, González-Martín MI2, Vivar-Quintana AM3, Blanco-López MA3, Lobos-Ortega IA4, Hernández-Hierro JM5. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Apr 13. pii: S0022-0302(16)30171-0. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10564. [Epub ahead of print]
In this study, we analyzed antioxidant capacity of 224 cheese samples prepared using 16 varied mixtures of milk from cows, ewes, and goats, in 2 manufacturing seasons (winter and summer), and over 6 mo of ripening. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the spectrophotometric 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) method. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with season of manufacturing and time of ripening but not with animal species providing the milk. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between the total antioxidant capacity and retinol (r = 0.399), fat percentage (r = 0.308), protein percentage (r = 0.366), K (r = 0.385), Mg (r = 0.312), Na (r = 0.432), and P (0.272) were observed. We evaluated the use of near infrared spectroscopy technology, together with the use of a remote reflectance fiber-optic probe, to predict the antioxidant capacity of cheese samples. The model generated allowed us to predict antioxidant capacity in unknown cheeses of different compositions and ripening times.
4.Reproducibility and relative validity of a FFQ to estimate the intake of fatty acids.
Praagman J1, Adolphs AP1, van Rossum CT2, Sluijs I1, van der Schouw YT1, Beulens JW1. Br J Nutr. 2016 Apr 15:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
We investigated the validity and reproducibility of the FFQ used in the Dutch European Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in order to rank subjects according to intakes of fatty acid classes and individual fatty acids. In total, 121 men and women (23-72 years) filled out three FFQ at 6-month intervals between 1991 and 1992. As a reference method, they filled out twelve monthly 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) during the same year. Intra-class correlation coefficients for the FFQ showed moderate to good reproducibility across all fatty acids (classes and individual) in men (0·56-0·81) and women (0·57-0·83). In men, Spearman's correlation coefficients (r s) for the FFQ compared with the 24HDR indicated moderate to good relative validity (r s=0·45-0·71) for all fatty acids, except for arachidonic acid and marine PUFA (r s<0·40). In women, relative validity was moderate to good for MUFA and trans-fatty acids (TFA) and the majority of SFA (r s=0·40-0·66), was fair for the short-chain SFA and lauric acid (r s=0·30-0·33) and was fair to moderate for PUFA (r s=0·22-0·47).