1.Crystal structure of 2-[(3aS,6R)-3,3,6-trimethyl-3,3a,4,5,6,7-hexa-hydro-2H-indazol-2-yl]thia-zol-4(5H)-one.
Ousidi AN1, Itto MY1, Auhmani A1, Riahi A2, Daran JC3, Abdelwahed A1. Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun. 2016 Feb 17;72(Pt 3):334-6. doi: 10.1107/S2056989016002498. eCollection 2016.
The title compound, C13H19N3OS, is a new thia-zolidin-4-one derivative prepared and isolated as the pure (3aS,6R)-diastereisomer from (R)-thio-semicarbazone pulegone. It crystallized with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. The compound is composed of a hexhydro-indazole ring system (viz. a five-membered di-hydro-pyrazole ring fused to a cyclo-hexyl ring) with a thia-zole-4-one ring system attached to one of the pyrazole N atoms (at position 2). The overall geometry of the two mol-ecules differs slightly, with the mean planes of the pyrazole and thia-zole rings being inclined to one another by 10.4 (1)° in mol-ecule A and 0.9 (1)° in mol-ecule B. In the crystal, the A and B mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ab plane. There are C-H⋯π inter-actions present within the layers, and between the layers, so forming a three-dimensional structure.
2.Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.
Becker LC1, Bergfeld WF2, Belsito DV2, Hill RA2, Klaassen CD2, Liebler DC2, Marks JG Jr2, Shank RC2, Slaga TJ2, Snyder PW2, Andersen FA3. Int J Toxicol. 2015 Nov-Dec;34(3 Suppl):5S-42S. doi: 10.1177/1091581815610508.
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.
3.Comparison of Renal Amyloid and Hyaline Glomerulopathy in B6C3F1 Mice: An NTP Retrospective Study.
Hoane JS1, Johnson CL1, Morrison JP1, Elmore SA2. Toxicol Pathol. 2016 Mar 21. pii: 0192623316630625. [Epub ahead of print]
Due to potential misdiagnosis of hyaline glomerulopathy (HG) for amyloidosis, a retrospective study of B6C3F1 mice from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) archives was undertaken to determine whether HG had occurred in prior NTP studies and, if so, whether these 2 glomerular lesions could be routinely discriminated. Kidney slides from 7 amyloid-positive control mice, 2 HG-positive control mice, 3 normal or negative control mice, and 41 potential HG mice (with renal-only deposits previously diagnosed as amyloid) were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), periodic acid Schiff (PAS), Congo red (CR), and Masson's trichrome (MT) stains. Utilizing these techniques, HG was reliably distinguished from amyloidosis. All 41 potential HG mice had glomerular deposits histochemically inconsistent with amyloid; the deposits were PAS positive and CR negative. Four of the 41 mice were selected for transmission electron microscopy of the glomerular deposits; ultrastructurally, the deposits in these animals were consistent with HG and not amyloid.
4.MAPK-mediated regulation of growth and essential oil composition in a salt-tolerant peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under NaCl stress.
Li Z1, Wang W2, Li G3, Guo K4, Harvey P4,5, Chen Q4, Zhao Z4, Wei Y4, Li J4, Yang H4. Protoplasma. 2015 Dec 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) is an important and commonly used flavoring agent worldwide, and salinity is a major stress that limits plant growth and reduces crop productivity. This work demonstrated the metabolic responses of essential oil production including the yield and component composition, gene expression, enzyme activity, and protein activation in a salt-tolerant peppermint Keyuan-1 with respect to NaCl stress. Our results showed that Keyuan-1 maintained normal growth and kept higher yield and content of essential oils under NaCl stress than wild-type (WT) peppermint.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and qPCR results showed that compared to WT seedlings, a 150-mM NaCl stress exerted no obvious changes in essential oil composition, transcriptional level of enzymes related to essential oil metabolism, and activity of pulegone reductase (Pr) in Keyuan-1 peppermint which preserved the higher amount of menthol and menthone as well as the lower content of menthofuran upon the 150-mM NaCl stress.