1.Actions of excitatory amino acids on brisk ganglion cells in the cat retina.
Boos R1, Müller F, Wässle H. J Neurophysiol. 1990 Nov;64(5):1368-79.
1. Retinal ganglion cell activity was recorded extracellularly in the intact cat eye. We examined the effects of iontophoretically applied glutamate (GLU), aspartate (ASP), and the specific agonists kainate (KA), quisqualate (QQ), (RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA), and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on the spontaneous and light-driven activity of ganglion cells. 2. ASP and GLU increased the spontaneous as well as the light-driven activity of all brisk cell types. The effects of the two drugs were very similar. The activity of most cells remained at a constant increased level during prolonged application of these drugs. 3. KA also excited all brisk ganglion cell classes and caused effects very similar to those of GLU and ASP but was effective at a much lower concentration. In general, brisk ganglion cells responded most vigorously to KA application. 4. QQ excited approximately 50% of all ON-X and OFF-X cells encountered, the other 50% of the X cells and all Y cells were inhibited during QQ-application.
2.Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)--a review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.
Seebaluck R1, Gurib-Fakim A2, Mahomoodally F3. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Jan 15;159:137-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.10.040. Epub 2014 Oct 30.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acalypha is the fourth largest genus of the Euphorbiaceae family with approximately 450-570 species. Several Acalypha species are used as medicinal plants in Africa and in the Mascarene Islands. Almost every part of the plant including the leaves, stem and roots are used as traditional remedies to treat and manage a panoply of ailments. However, there is no updated compilation of traditionally important medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus. The present review therefore, endeavors to provide for the first time an updated compilation of documented ethnopharmacological information in relation to the ethnomedicinal, ethnoveterinary, zoopharmacognosy, phytochemistry and biological activities of medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus which can subsequently open new perspectives for further pharmacological research.
3.Catalysis of ester aminolysis by cyclodextrins. The reaction of alkylamines with p-nitrophenyl alkanoates
Gadosy TA1, Boyd MJ, Tee OS. J Org Chem. 2000 Oct 20;65(21):6879-89.
The effects of four cyclodextrins (alpha-CD, beta-CD, hydroxypropyl-beta-CD, and gamma-CD) on the aminolysis of p-nitrophenyl alkanoates (acetate to heptanoate) by primary amines (n-propyl to n-octyl, isobutyl, isopentyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl) in aqueous solution have been investigated. Rate constants for amine attack on the free and CD-bound esters (k(N) and k(cN)) have ratios (k(cN)/k(N)) varying from 0.08 (retardation) to 180 (catalysis). For the kinetically equivalent process of free ester reacting with CD-bound amine (k(Nc)), the ratios k(Nc)/k(N) vary from 0.2 to 28. Either way, there is evidence of catalysis in some cases and retardation in others. Changes in reactivity parameters with structure indicate more than one mode of transition state binding to the CDs. Short esters react with short alkylamines by attack of free amine on the ester bound by its aryl group, but for longer amines, free ester reacts with CD-bound amine.
4.Mediation of oviposition responses in the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston by certain fatty acid esters.
Sharma KR1, Seenivasagan T, Rao AN, Ganesan K, Agrawal OP, Prakash S. Parasitol Res. 2009 Jan;104(2):281-6. doi: 10.1007/s00436-008-1189-8. Epub 2008 Sep 16.
The chemical factors involved in oviposition site selection by mosquitoes have become the focus of interest in recent years, and considerable attention is paid to the chemical cues influencing mosquito oviposition. Studies on synthetic oviposition attractants/repellents of long-chain fatty acid esters against Anopheles stephensi are limited. Screening and identification of chemicals which potentially attract/repel the gravid females to/or from oviposition site could be exploited for eco-friendly mosquito management strategies. The ester compounds demonstrated their ability to repel and attract the gravid A. stephensi females in the treated substrates. Significant level of concentration-dependent negative oviposition response of mosquitoes to octadecyl propanoate, heptadecyl butanoate, hexadecyl pentanoate, and tetradecyl heptanoate were observed. In contrast, decyl undecanoate, nonyl dodecanoate, pentyl hexadecanoate, and propyl octadecanoate elicited concentration-dependent positive oviposition responses from the gravid mosquitoes.