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Reference Reading

1.Synthesis and amphiphilic properties of decanoyl esters of tri- and tetraethylene glycol.
Zhu Y1, Molinier V, Queste S, Aubry JM. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2007 Aug 15;312(2):397-404. Epub 2007 Mar 24.
Well-defined decanoyl triethylene glycol ester and decanoyl tetraethylene glycol ester were synthesized and compared to their ether counterparts (C(10)E(4) and C(10)E(3)). Their physicochemical properties i.e. critical micelle concentrations (CMC), cloud points, and equilibrium surface tensions were determined. Binary water-surfactant phase behavior was also studied by polarized optical microscopy. The stability of the ester bond was determined by investigating alkaline hydrolysis of the compounds. It was found that CMC, cloud point and equilibrium surface tension are roughly the same for corresponding ethers and esters. In the binary diagram, the esters form only lamellar phases, the area of which is smaller than that of the ether counterparts. These different behaviors can be related to the modification of the molecular conformation induced by the replacement of the ether group by the ester group.
2.Potentiating effect of fluphenazine decanoate and risperidone on development of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Liu PY1, Wu PC, Chen CY, Chen YC. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 Jan-Feb;33(1):84.e5-7. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.10.009. Epub 2010 Dec 23.
We present the case of a woman with paranoid schizophrenia who was receiving oral risperidone. She developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) following the addition of depot fluphenazine for the treatment of refractory delusions. NMS subsided and psychotic features were controlled after both antipsychotics were discontinued and the patient was treated instead with olanzapine.
3.Metabolism of pyrenyl fatty acids in baby hamster kidney fibroblasts. Effect of the acyl chain length.
Kasurinen J1, Somerharju P. J Biol Chem. 1992 Apr 5;267(10):6563-9.
Biosynthetic labeling of cellular lipids with a fluorescent pyrenyl fatty acid (PyrxFA) moiety was studied in order to assess the usefulness of this approach in the introduction of fluorescent lipid molecules to living cells for transport and metabolic studies. PyrxFAs containing 4-14 aliphatic carbons were added to the culture medium of baby hamster kidney (BHK) fibroblasts, and their incorporation to various lipid species was monitored by thin layer and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results show that the length of the acyl chain has a remarkable effect on the efficiency of incorporation as well as distribution of the label between lipid species. Accordingly, PyrxFAs can be divided into two groups: the short chain ones including the pyrene butyrate and hexanoate derivatives, which show only modest incorporation to phospholipids and negligible labeling of triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and the long chain PyrxFAs including pyrene octanoate, decanoate, dodecanoate, and myristate derivatives, which incorporate efficiently both to phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine (PC) and -ethanolamine (PE), and neutral lipids, i.
4.Elastomeric PGS scaffolds in arterial tissue engineering.
Lee KW1, Wang Y. J Vis Exp. 2011 Apr 8;(50). pii: 2691. doi: 10.3791/2691.
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation.