1.Solution structure of nocistatin, a new peptide analgesic.
Crescenzi O1, Guerrini R, Picone D, Salvadori S, Tancredi T, Temussi PA. Biopolymers. 2000 Mar;53(3):257-64.
Nocistatin, a new heptadecapeptide encoded in the bPNP-3 gene, has a powerful biological activity connected with the mechanisms of pain transmission. It does not bind to the opioid receptors but to another brain receptor with high affinity. In order to substantiate these novel biological data with a structural basis, we have undertaken a conformational study in solution. Proton nmr data in helicogenic solvents are consistent with a well-defined helical structure that is consistent with the nmr parameters of the C-terminal octapeptide, a shorter fragment that retains allodynia-blocking activity.
2.Central injections of nocistatin or its C-terminal hexapeptide exert anxiogenic-like effect on behaviour of mice in the plus-maze test.
Gavioli EC1, Rae GA, Calo' G, Guerrini R, De Lima TC. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(5):764-72.
. Nocistatin (NST) antagonizes several actions of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), but acts on distinct receptors. As N/OFQ exerts anxiolytic-like actions in various tests, its behavioural actions in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test were compared with those of bovine NST. 2. Five minutes after i.c.v. treatment, mice were placed on the EPM for 5 min and entries into and time spent on open and closed arms were recorded alongside other parameters. 3. NST (0.1 - 3 pmol) reduced percentages of entries into (control 39.6+/-3.1%, peak effect at 1 pmol NST 8.5+/-2.9%) and time spent on open arms (control 30.8+/-2.3%, NST 2.7+/-1.5%). The C-terminal hexapeptide of NST (NST-C6; 0.01 - 10 pmol) closely mimicked these actions of NST, with peak effects at 0.1 pmol. 4. N/OFQ (1 - 100 pmol) increased percentages of entries into (control 38.5+/-3.4%; peak effect at 10 pmol N/OFQ 67.9+/-4.9%) and time spent on open arms (control 32.0+/-3.8%; N/OFQ 74.9+/-5.
3.Nocistatin, a peptide that blocks nociceptin action in pain transmission.
Okuda-Ashitaka E1, Minami T, Tachibana S, Yoshihara Y, Nishiuchi Y, Kimura T, Ito S. Nature. 1998 Mar 19;392(6673):286-9.
Prolonged tissue damage or injury often leads to chronic pain states such that noxious stimuli evoke hyperalgesia and innocuous tactile stimuli evoke pain (allodynia). The neuropeptide nociceptin, also known as orphanin FQ, is an endogenous ligand for the orphan opioid-like receptor which induces both hyperalgesia and allodynia when administered by injection through the theca of the spinal cord into the subarachnoid space (that is, intrathecally). Here we show that the nociceptin precursor contains another biologically active peptide which we call nocistatin. Nocistatin blocks nociceptin-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia, and attenuates pain evoked by prostaglandin E2. It is the carboxy-terminal hexapeptide of nocistatin (Glu-Gln-Lys-Gln-Leu-Gln), which is conserved in bovine, human and murine species, that possesses allodynia-blocking activity. We have also isolated endogenous nocistatin from bovine brain. Furthermore, intrathecal pretreatment with anti-nocistatin antibody decreases the threshold for nociceptin-induced allodynia.