1. Nitroreductase from Salmonella typhimurium: characterization and catalytic activity
Yanto Yanto, Melanie Hall and Andreas S. Bommarius*. Org. Biomol. Chem., 2010, 8, 1826–1832
We ﬁrst investigated the effect of temperature and pH on NRSal by monitoring the change of enzymatic activity over the range of 10–60 oC (Fig. 3), and pH range of 4–9 (Fig. 4). The activity-temperature proﬁle showed maximum speciﬁc activity of 13.6 U/mg for reduction of nitrofurazone at 45 oC and pH 7.5, which was 3.2-fold higher than the activity at room temperature (20 oC). Arrhenius plots yield an activation energy Ea of 42.7 kJ mol -1 for the temperature range of 10–45 oC(r2=
0.963), and a deactivation energy Ed of -31.5 kJ mol-1for the temperature range of 45–60 oC(r2= 0.965). The activity-pH proﬁle showed an optimum pH at 7.2 with highest speciﬁc activity of 8.10 U/mg for reduction of nitrofurazone at 20 oC in 50mM TrisHCl buffer.We also found that NRSal had lower activity (but similar activity–pH pattern with a maximum activity at pH 7.2) in 50mMphosphate buffer compared to 50mM TrisHCl buffer. The activity of NRSal is therefore buffer dependent and TrisHCl is the optimumbuffer for reactions run between pH6–7.5. Additionally, NRSal considerably lost its activity beyond pH 8.
2. ELISA detection of semicarbazide based on a fast sample pretreatment method
Zhiyuan Fang, Baishan Jiang, Lingwen Zeng*. Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 6164-6166
Nitrofurazone belongs to the group of nitrofuran antibiotics, which has been widely used as a food additive for the treatment of gastrointestinal infections in cattle, pigs, poultry, fish and shrimps etc. It has been reported to cause tumors in experimental animals and participate in nitrofurazone-induced carcinogenesis. Nitrofurazone and its metabolites are also involved in tumor initiation through p53 gene damage, and stimulating the proliferation of tumor cells. Because of its carcinogenicity, the use of nitrofurazone in food-producing animals has been banned by food regulatory authorities, including those in Europe, USA and China.
3. Development of a direct competitive chemiluminescent ELISA for the detection of nitrofurantoin metabolite 1-amino-hydantoin in fish and honey
Quan Wang,* Ying-Chun Liu, Yong-Jun Chen. Anal. Methods,2014, 6, 4414–4420
Nitrofurantoin belongs to the nitrofuran group of antibiotics, all of which have a characteristic 5-nitrofuran ring. Nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, furaltadone, and nitrofurazone) have been widely and eﬀectively used in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in cattle, poultry, and pigs. They have also been frequently used as growth promoters in animal husbandry. Nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, furaltadone, and nitrofurazone are rapidlymetabolized to 1-amino-hydantoin (AHD), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), semicarbazide (SEM), and 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidone (AMOZ), respectively, within a few hours of administration.
4. Characterization of the interaction between nitrofurazone and human serum albumin by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods
Fengyu Deng, Chengyu Dong and Ying Liu*. Mol. BioSyst., 2012, 8, 1446–1451
Nitrofurazone (NF) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug belonging to nitrofurans. It is eﬀective in the treatment of many human and animal infections such as skin and mucous membrane infections. It has been proposed that NF may participate in NF-induced carcinogenesis as it induced promotion of mammary tumor growth in mammal and alteration in endocrine function. Due to the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of NF and its metabolites, since the mid-1990s the use of NF for any food-producing animal in the EU or destined for export into the EU has been limited. However, as a local anti-infective drug, especially for its special therapy of enteritis, boils and fester gill caused by coli or salmonella,NFis still widely used in livestock and aquaculture. Consequently, NF residues exist in animal food and environment, which can enter human body and bring about a risk to human health.