1.Comparative Outcomes of Carotid Artery Stent Placement and Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease.
Adil MM1, Saeed F2, Chaudhary SA3, Malik A4, Qureshi AI4. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016 Apr 13. pii: S1052-3057(16)00193-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.03.040. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a high prevalence of carotid artery stenosis but are excluded from clinical trials. We sought to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes related to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) in ESRD and CKD patients.
2.Discriminability of personality profiles in isolated and Co-morbid marijuana and nicotine users.
Ketcherside A1, Jeon-Slaughter H2, Baine JL1, Filbey FM3. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Apr 30;238:356-362. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.02.024. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
Specific personality traits have been linked with substance use disorders (SUDs), genetic mechanisms, and brain systems. Thus, determining the specificity of personality traits to types of SUD can advance the field towards defining SUD endophenotypes as well as understanding the brain systems involved for the development of novel treatments. Disentangling these factors is particularly important in highly co morbid SUDs, such as marijuana and nicotine use, so treatment can occur effectively for both. This study evaluated personality traits that distinguish isolated and co-morbid use of marijuana and nicotine. To that end, we collected the NEO Five Factor Inventory in participants who used marijuana-only (n=59), nicotine-only (n=27), both marijuana and nicotine (n=28), and in non-using controls (n=28). We used factor analyses to identify personality profiles, which are linear combinations of the five NEO Factors. We then conducted Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis to test accuracy of the personality factors in discriminating isolated and co-morbid marijuana and nicotine users from each other.
3.Nicotine restores functional connectivity of the ventral attention network in schizophrenia.
Smucny J1, Olincy A2, Tregellas JR3. Neuropharmacology. 2016 Apr 13. pii: S0028-3908(16)30155-1. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.04.015. [Epub ahead of print]
While previous work has suggested that nicotine may transiently improve attention deficits in schizophrenia, the neuronal mechanisms are poorly understood. This study is the first to examine the effects of nicotine on connectivity within the ventral attention network (VAN) during a selective attention task in schizophrenia. Using a crossover design, 17 nonsmoking patients with schizophrenia and 20 age/gender-matched nonsmoking healthy controls performed a go/no-go task with environmental noise distractors during application of a 7 mg nicotine or placebo patch. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was performed to analyze task-associated changes in connectivity between a ventral parietal cortex (VPC) seed and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), key components of the human VAN. Effects of nicotine on resting state VAN connectivity were also examined. A significant diagnosis × drug interaction was observed on task-associated connectivity between the VPC seed and the left IFG (F(1,35) = 8.