1.Ester and carbamate ester derivatives of Biochanin A: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of estrogenic and antiproliferative activities.
Fokialakis N1, Alexi X, Aligiannis N, Siriani D, Meligova AK, Pratsinis H, Mitakou S, Alexis MN. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012 May 1;20(9):2962-70. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2012.03.012. Epub 2012 Mar 10.
Biochanin A (BCA), a major isoflavone in red clover and many other legumes, has been reported to display estrogenic as well as cancer chemopreventive properties. Ingested BCA is known to display low bioavailability due to poor solubility, extensive metabolism and rapid clearance. Esters of bioactive isoflavones are known to increase metabolic stability and bioavailability following local rather than systemic administration. We synthesized BCA from phloroglucinol and p-methoxy-phenylacetic acid by a Friedel-Crafts reaction and cyclization. We also synthesized esters (1, 3) and carbamate esters (2, 4, 5) at position 7 of BCA using short aliphatic chains bearing a chlorine (1, 2) or a bromine atom (3, 4) or long aliphatic chains without such atoms (5). We tested the estrogenic and antiproliferative activities of 1-5 and BCA using human breast and endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. We found that 5 affects MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells in a manner providing for induction of gene expression to a level similar to 17β-estradiol and BCA but, unlike both of the latter, for suppression of cell proliferation as well.
2.Elucidating the role of the phenylacetic acid metabolic complex in the pathogenic activity of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3.
Bartz FE1, Glassbrook NJ, Danehower DA, Cubeta MA. Mycologia. 2012 Jul-Aug;104(4):793-803. doi: 10.3852/11-084. Epub 2012 Mar 31.
The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani produces phytotoxic phenylacetic acid (PAA) and hydroxy (OH-) and methoxy (MeO-) derivatives of PAA. However, limited information is available on the specific role that these compounds play in the development of Rhizoctonia disease symptoms and concentration(s) required to induce a host response. Reports that PAA inhibits the growth of R. solani conflict with the established ability of the fungus to produce and metabolize PAA. Experiments were conducted to clarify the role of the PAA metabolic complex in Rhizoctonia disease. In this study the concentration of PAA and derivatives required to induce tomato root necrosis and stem canker, in the absence of the fungus, and the concentration that inhibits mycelial growth of R. solani were determined. The effect of exogenous PAA and derivatives of PAA on tomato seedling growth also was investigated. Growth of tomato seedlings in medium containing 0.1-7.5 mM PAA and derivatives induced necrosis of up to 85% of root system.
3.Modulation of the phenylacetic acid metabolic complex by quinic acid alters the disease-causing activity of Rhizoctonia solani on tomato.
Bartz FE1, Glassbrook NJ, Danehower DA, Cubeta MA. Phytochemistry. 2013 May;89:47-52. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.09.018. Epub 2013 Feb 1.
The metabolic control of plant growth regulator production by the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (teleomorph=Thanatephorus cucumeris (A.B. Frank) Donk) and consequences associated with the parasitic and saprobic activity of the fungus were investigated. Fourteen genetically distinct isolates of the fungus belonging to anastomosis groups (AG) AG-3, AG-4, and AG-1-IA were grown on Vogel's minimal medium N with and without the addition of a 25 mM quinic acid (QA) source of carbon. The effect of QA on fungal biomass was determined by measuring the dry wt of mycelia produced under each growth condition. QA stimulated growth of 13 of 14 isolates of R. solani examined. The production of phenylacetic acid (PAA) and the chemically related derivatives 2-hydroxy-PAA, 3-hydroxy-PAA, 4-hydroxy-PAA, and 3-methoxy-PAA on the two different media was compared by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The presence of QA in the growth medium of R.
4.Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry, blueberry, or black raspberry powder.
Khanal R1, Howard LR, Prior RL. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 May 7;62(18):3987-96. doi: 10.1021/jf403883r. Epub 2013 Nov 14.
Dietary polyphenolics can be converted into smaller phenolic acids (PA) by microorganisms in the colon and may contribute to health benefits associated with the parent polyphenolics. Urinary excretion of 18 PA and their conjugates was studied, using HPLC-MS/MS, in rats fed AIN93G-based diets containing 5% (dry weight basis) of either cranberry (CB), blueberry (BB), or black raspberry (BRB). Hippuric, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were excreted in greatest quantity in the urine over a 24 h period in all diets. Primary PA excreted in the berry diets were 4-hydroxycinnamic acid for CB; chlorogenic, ferulic, and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acids for BB; and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acids for BRB. PA were present in conjugated form with cinnamic acid derivatives being 50-70% and phenylacetic acid derivatives conjugated <10%. Conjugated, and not just the free, PA are significant contributors to total urinary excretion.