Lindane - CAS 58-89-9
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CAS 58-89-9 Lindane

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Reference Reading

1. A comparison of European and North American atmospheric deposition networks: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lindane
Pierrette Blanchard,* Dagmar Kallweit, Kenneth A. Brice, J. Environ. Monit., 2006, 8, 465–471
A joint study between Canada and Germany was initiated and organized by the German Federal Environmental Agency (FEA). Although differences between networks can be identified at the sampling or analysis stages, long-term monitoring networks such as IADN and OSPAR cannot easily afford methodoly change because of the importance of their respective temporal trends. The goals of this study were to determine if PAH and lindane concentrations in air and precipitation could be measured using the existing sampling and analytical methods of IADN and OSPAR with the required accuracy indicated in their respective QA/QC programmes. Results from the study were to be used in conjunction with additional Canadian emission data on BaP and Lindane as input data for model calculations of the deposition of these organic substances into the OSPAR region V (North-East Atlantic) on the Northern Hemispheric Level.
2. Monitoring of pesticide residues in dairy cattle farms from NW Spain
Maria Fernandez-Alvarez, J. Pablo Lamas, Maria Garcia-Chao, Thierry Dagnac*. J. Environ. Monit., 2010, 12, 1864–1875
Four of the cattle feed samples exceeded the limits for three of the pesticides analyzed: β-lindane, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos. GC-MS was used for confirmation of positive results. The level of contamination by pesticides can be considered generally low in the samples analyzed. This study will be followed by an analysis of pesticide residues in maize forage, which, after ensiling, is a major component of the daily ration for bovines in NW Spain.
3. An electrochemical sensor highly selective for lindane determination: a comparative study using three different α-MnO2 nanostructures
M. U. Anu Prathap, Shengnan Sun and Zhichuan J. Xu*. RSC Adv.,2016, 6, 22973–22979
Lindane (a gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane) is an organochlorine insecticide named after the Dutch chemist Teunis van der Linden who was the first to isolate α-, β-, and γ-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane in 1912. The insecticidal properties of lindane were first demonstrated by Ulmann, 1972. Lindane has been used to treat food crops and in forestry products, as a seed treatment, a soil treatment, and to treat livestock and pets. Lindane is reported to be a central nervous system stimulant. The symptoms of acute exposure include mental and motor retardation, central nervous system excitation, tonic–clonic convulsions, respiratory failure, pulmonary edema and dermatitis.
4. Gas and liquid phase sorption studies of lindane on NaY and MCM-41 molecular sieves
T.-A. Morris and K. Huddersman. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 1999, 1, 4673-4680
The pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) is still in use as a wood treatment and preservative for new timbers in the United Kingdom and in developing countries for the eradication of wood boring insects, and to provide protection from subsequent attack for a minimum of 20 years. Lindane is an accumulative, long-lived toxin known to damage the liver and to promote cancer, and although there have been no studies to date it is thought that there are potential health problems associated with sustained release of low levels over a long time period. The authors have addressed the problem of pesticide emissions to the environment by the application of a zeolite coating to pesticide treated timber,3 and they have shown that the zeolite can successfully reduce lindane emissions, even in the presence of formulation reagents, such as toluene and moisture from the air. This work is directed to a fundamental examination of the gas and liquid phase sorption of lindane on microporous aluminosilicate zeolite and zeotype materials, and has been extended to include competitive studies of lindane uptake in the presence of toluene and water. To date, no studies have been undertaken in the area of pesticide uptake, and it is particularly relevant owing to stricter pollution controls.