1.Zanthoxylum bungeanum Essential Oil Induces Apoptosis of HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.
Li K1, Zhou R2, Jia W3, Li Z4, Li J5, Zhang P6, Xiao T7. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Mar 31. pii: S0378-8741(16)30168-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.054. [Epub ahead of print]
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that affects approximately 2% of the world's population.Traditional Chinese medicine has long been used to treat a variety of skin diseases including psoriasis. Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Rutaceae) is a Chinese herb medicine that has been shown to possess a wide range of biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activity. This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the hydro-distilled Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil (ZBEO), and to investigate its anti-proliferative activity on HaCaT cells as well as to understand its anti-psoriasis mechanisms. In the present study, thirty-nine compounds of the ZBEO were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The ZBEO significantly inhibited proliferation of HaCaT cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ZBEO induced S phase arrest and apoptosis as examined by Flow cytometry. Also, the ZBEO-treated HaCaT cells showed typical apoptotic morphologic features by DAPI staining assay.
2.Isothermal crystallization behavior of cocoa butter at 17°C and 20°C with and without limonene.
Rigolle A, Goderis B, Van Den Abeele K, Foubert I. J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Apr 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Differential scanning calorimetry and real-time X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation were used to elucidate the isothermal cocoa butter crystallization at 17°C and 20°C in the absence and presence of different limonene concentrations. At 17°C, a three-step crystallization process was visible for pure cocoa butter, whereby first an unknown structure with long spacings between a 2L and 3L structure was formed that rapidly transformed into the more stable α structure which in turn was converted into more stable β' crystals. At 20°C, an α mediated β' crystallization was observed. The addition of limonene resulted in a reduction of the amount of unstable crystals and an acceleration of polymorphic transitions. At 17°C, the crystallization process was accelerated due to the acceleration of the formation of more stable polymorphic forms, while there were insufficient α crystals for an α mediated β' nucleation at 20°C, resulting in a slower crystallization process.
3.Terbinafine hydrochloride nanovesicular gel: In vitro characterization, ex vivo permeation and clinical investigation.
AbdelSamie SM1, Kamel AO2, Sammour OA1, Ibrahim SM3. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2016 Apr 9. pii: S0928-0987(16)30105-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.04.004. [Epub ahead of print]
In this work, nanovesicular chitosan gels were prepared for dermal delivery of terbinafine hydrochloride (TBN HCl). Ethosomes and vesicles containing different types of penetration enhancers (PEs) viz. Terpenes (cineole and limonene), labrasol and transcutol were developed. The prepared vesicles were evaluated for physical characteristics as well as skin interaction. The selected vesicles were incorporated into chitosan gel. An in vivo animal study was done on rat induced superficial Candida infection model. Moreover, randomized double blind clinical study was done on patients to compare the effect of the selected nanovesicular gel against the market product. Results showed the formation of nearly spherical, mostly deformable vesicular systems with size range of 95.5-530nm, zeta potential range of -0.1 to 15mV and entrapment efficiency range of 20-96.7%. Penetration enhancer vesicles (PEVs) prepared with 4% limonene (ELI4) showed the highest percent of drug deposition in the skin (53%) and the highest local accumulation efficiency value (35.
4.Monoterpene limonene induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes.
Lone J1, Yun JW2. Life Sci. 2016 Apr 9. pii: S0024-3205(16)30230-2. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.04.010. [Epub ahead of print]
AIMS: Several dietary compounds that are able to induce the brown fat-like phenotype in white adipocytes have been considered for treatment of obesity due to their ability to increase energy expenditure. Here, we report that limonene induces the brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins.