1.Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.
Mohammed D1, Hirata K, Hadgraft J, Lane ME. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2014 Jan 23;51:118-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2013.09.009. Epub 2013 Sep 21.
In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.
2.Polyglycerol fatty acid ester surfactant-based microemulsions for targeted delivery of ceramide AP into the stratum corneum: formulation, characterisation, in vitro release and penetration investigation.
Sahle FF1, Metz H, Wohlrab J, Neubert RH. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2012 Sep;82(1):139-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2012.05.017. Epub 2012 Jun 9.
Ceramide AP (CER [AP]) is an integral component of the stratum corneum (SC) lipid matrix and is capable of forming tough and super stable lamellae. It may help to restore the barrier function in aged and affected skin. However, its effectiveness from conventional dosage forms is limited due to its poor solubility and penetration into the SC. Therefore, stable polyglycerol fatty acid ester surfactant (SAA)-based CER [AP] microemulsions (MEs) were formulated and characterised to enhance its solubilisation and penetration into the SC. TEGO® CARE PL 4 (TCPL4: polyglycerol-4-laurate), isopropyl palmitate (IPP) and water-1, 2 pentandiol (PeG) were used as amphiphilic, oily and hydrophilic components, respectively. The effects of HYDRIOL® PGMO.4 (HPGMO4: polyglyceryl-4-oleate) as a co-surfactant (co-SAA) and linoleic acid (Lin A) as part of the oil component on the stability and characteristics of the MEs were investigated. EPR results were used for the first time to reveal MEs nanostructures.
3.Influence of organic solvents on catalytic behaviors and cell morphology of whole-cell biocatalysts for synthesis of 5'-arabinocytosine laurate.
Yang M1, Wu H2, Lian Y2, Li X3, Lai F2, Zhao G3. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 19;9(8):e104847. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104847. eCollection 2014.
A whole-cell based method was developed for the regioselective synthesis of arabinocytosine laurate. Among the seven kinds of bacteria strains tested in the acylation reaction, Pseudomonas fluorescens gave the highest productivity and a higher 5'-regioselectivity than 99%. Compared with pure organic solvents, the use of organic solvent mixtures greatly promoted the yield of the whole-cell catalyzed reaction, but showed little influence on the 5'-regioselectivity. Of all the tested solvent mixtures, the best reaction result was found in isopropyl ether/pyridine followed by isopentanol/pyridine. However, the whole-cells showed much lower thermostability in isopropyl ether/pyridine than in THF-pyridine. To better understand the toxic effects of the organic solvents on P. fluorescens whole-cells and growing cells were further examined. Significant influences of organic solvents on the biomass of the cells were found, which differed depending on the type of solvents used.
4.Characterization of cephalexin loaded nonionic microemulsions.
Fanun M1, Papadimitriou V, Xenakis A. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2011 Sep 1;361(1):115-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2011.05.042. Epub 2011 May 23.
Water/propylene glycol/sucrose laurate/ethoxylated mono-di-glyceride/isopropyl myristate/peppermint oil U-type microemulsions were used to solubilize cephalexin. Microemulsion dilution and interfacial factors contributing to the cephalexin solubilization were evaluated. Cephalexin solubilization capacity increases with the increase in the aqueous phase volume fraction (φ) up to 0.4 then decreases. Electrical conductivity of drug loaded and drug free microemulsions increases with φ. The hydrodynamic radius measured by dynamic light scattering of the oil-in-water loaded microemulsions decreases with temperature. The microemulsions were characterized by the volumetric parameters, density, excess volume, ultrasonic velocity and isentropic compressibility. The microemulsion densities increase with φ up to 0.8 then decrease. The excess volume decreases with φ up to 0.8 then stabilizes. Ultrasonic velocities increase with the increase in φ while isentropic compressibility decreases.