1. Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clearHepatozoon canisinfection in dogs
Serdar Pasa & Huseyin Voyvoda & Tulin Karagenc. Parasitol Res (2011) 109:919–926
Treatment is recommended for all infected dogs withH. canis, including those with a mild disease, because para-sitaemia increases over time and develops into a severe infection (Baneth and Weigler 1997; Baneth and Vincent-Johnson 2005; Mundim et al. 2008). Imidocarb dipropio-nate has long been the drug of choice for treatment of HCI in dogs, but its therapeutic efficacy is inconsistent. Ogunkoya et al. (1981) described elimination of H. canis gametocytes from the blood in 98% of dogs within 24 h of a single imidocarb dipropionate treatment. A combination of imidocarb dipropionate and tetracycline also successfully cleared or depressed gametocytes from the blood and resolved clinical signs in dogs with HCI (Elias and Homans 1988; Baneth et al. 1995). However, in contrast to previous studies, a recent study indicated that imidocarb dipropio-nate is not effective in eliminating H. canisfrom dogs treated repeatedly over 8 months, based on parasitological and molecular evaluation methods (Sasanelli et al.2010).
2. Possibilities to controlIchthyophthirius multifiliisinfestation with medicated feed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (Leuciscus cephalus)
Ghada Abdel-Hafez & Franz Lahnsteiner & Nabil Mansou. Parasitol Res (2014) 113:1119–1126
The anti-parasitic imidocarb dipropionate was ineffective againstI. multifiliis. It inhibits the multiplication of the parasites interfering with the production and/or utilisation of polyamines which have an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell differentiation (Coldham et al.1995; Lawrence2004). Also the antibiotics erythromycin and sulphadiazine were ineffective. Erythromycin, a bacteriocide, prevents the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome and inhibits protein synthesis (Riviere and Spoo 2001). Sulfa-diazine has a bacteriostatic action against many species of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It inhibits the multiplication of bacteria by acting as competitive inhib-itor of p-aminobenzoic acid in folic acid metabolism (Spoo and Riviere 2001).
3. Rangelia vitalliin dogs in southern Brazil
Raqueli Teresinha França & Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva & Francine Chimelo Paim. Comp Clin Pathol (2010) 19:383–387
Therapy with doxycycline was started in the late stage of the disease in one of the icteric dogs and was unsuccessful. One animal that died after a protracted clinical course of 2–3 months had anemia. Other animals had recovery approximately 48 h after therapy with imidocarb dipropi-onate and blood transfusion, and another after treatment with doxycycline and glucocorticoid therapy. Three animals died 24–48 h after therapy with diminazene aceturate. In
our study, we obtained the cure of all animals treated, which allows us to suggest that therapy with the three drugs is the best treatment protocol for rangeliosis. Based on the findings, it is concluded thatR. Vitalliis pathogenic for dogs, causing severe anemia and thrombo-cytopenia. Blood smear is an important method to visualize the parasite within red blood cells, neutrophils, and macro-phages. The therapeutic protocol based on prednisone, doxycycline, and dipropionate imidocarb is effective in the treatment of rangeliosis.
4. Report of a clinical case of dog infected byHepatozoon canis in Southern Brazil
Aleksandro S. Da Silva & Raqueli T. França. Comp Clin Pathol (2011) 20:669–672
The treatment with doxycycline took only at 21 October 2009 did not eliminate theH. canisfrom circulation, since the parasite was found within neutrophils in blood smear on 3 November 2009 (Fig. 1). However, when it was administered, dipropionate imidocarb associated with doxy-cycline, we observed improvement of clinical signs and hematological parameters. Table 1 shows an increased number of total erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, with values close reference values, when the dog was sampled for the third time, after treatment. The count of platelets and leukocytes had their normalization 14 days after treatment (3º examination). Previously, imidocarb dipropionate associated with tetracyclines and sulfamethox-asole–trimethoprim was successful to treat a H. canis-infected dog (Aguiar et al. 2004). Other previously reported drugs for treatment of hepatozoonosis are the combination of clindamycin and doxycycline (Macintire et al.2006).