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Reference Reading

1.Safety of a Novel Calcium/Potassium Salt of Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA-SX): I. Two-Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study.
Deshmukh NS1, Bagchi M, Yasmin T, Bagchi D. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2008;18(5):433-42. doi: 10.1080/15376510802084030.
ABSTRACT (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to inhibit fat synthesis and reduce food intake. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) on the reproductive systems of male and female rats, the postnatal maturation and reproductive capacity of their offspring, and possible cumulative effects through multiple generations. Sprague-Dawley rats (30/sex/group) were maintained on feed containing HCA-SX at dose levels of 0, 1000, 3000, or 10,000 ppm for 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and, for females, through gestation and lactation, across two generations. During the period of study, animals were examined daily for signs of clinical toxicity and their body weight and feed consumption were recorded twice a week. For the parents (F(0) and F(1)) and the offspring (F(1) and F(2a)), reproductive parameters such as fertility and mating, gestation, parturition, litters, lactation, sexual maturity, and development of offspring were assessed.
2.Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt.
Soni MG1, Burdock GA, Preuss HG, Stohs SJ, Ohia SE, Bagchi D. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 Sep;42(9):1513-29.
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10-30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake. The objective of this review is to systematically review the available safety/toxicity literature on HCA to determine its safety in-use. The primary mechanism of action of HCA appears to be related to its ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), primary building blocks of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium-HCA extract (HCA-SX), is considerably more soluble and bioavailable than calcium-based HCA ingredients.
3.An overview of the safety and efficacy of a novel, natural(-)-hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX) for weight management.
Preuss HG1, Rao CV, Garis R, Bramble JD, Ohia SE, Bagchi M, Bagchi D. J Med. 2004;35(1-6):33-48.
Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a safe, natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, a key enzyme which facilitates the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides. Previous studies in our laboratories have demonstrated the superior bioavailability of a novel calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax). Greater bioavailability of HCA-SX was observed when taken on an empty stomach. HCA-SX was also shown to exhibit concentration-dependent release of serotonin in isolated rat brain cortex, which may explain its appetite suppressive action. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, primary eye irritation and 90-day chronic toxicity studies, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation and mouse lymphoma tests, were assessed to determine the safety of HCA-SX. In the 90-day toxicity study, dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX were assessed on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathology in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.
4.Safety assessment of a calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.
Stohs SJ1, Lau FC, Kim D, Kim SU, Bagchi M, Bagchi D. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2010 Nov;20(9):515-25. doi: 10.3109/15376516.2010.521207. Epub 2010 Oct 14.
The safety of Garcinia cambogiaextract, its active ingredient (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), and the marketed weight management formula, Super CitriMax(®) (HCA-SX), is supported by numerous in vitro and animal experimental studies as well as several clinical studies. HCA-SX has been shown to reduce appetite, inhibit fat synthesis, and decrease body weight. A series of toxicological tests including acute, short-term, and sub-chronic studies as well as teratogenicity/reproduction and genotoxicity studies were performed on HCA-SX. In the acute oral toxicity study, administration of a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg of HCA-SX did not reveal any significant changes for all examined tissues. Following the high dose safety testing, there were no remarkable changes or differences observed in any of the experimental conditions monitored. There were no macroscopic abnormalities for any examined tissues at scheduled necropsies. On the basis of these findings, the consumption of HCA-SX at dose level of up to 4667 mg/day is considered safe.