1.The PPARgamma agonist FMOC-L-leucine protects both mature and immature brain.
Maurois P1, Rocchi S, Pages N, Bac P, Stables JP, Gressens P, Vamecq J. Biomed Pharmacother. 2008 Apr-May;62(4):259-63. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2007.10.014. Epub 2007 Dec 3.
(N-[9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl]-)-L-leucine (FMOC-L-leucine) and rosiglitazone, two ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), were evaluated in mature (adult mice) and immature (pups) brain injury models. In adult magnesium-deficient mice, a model responsive to both neuroprotective and anti-seizure compounds, FMOC-L-leucine, but not rosiglitazone, protected against audiogenic seizures. The protection afforded by FMOC-L-leucine was alleviated by the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 (1-2 mg/kg) and was induced in 50% animals by 4.8+/-1.2 mg/kg. At this dose, FMOC-L-leucine modified audiogenic seizure phase durations in convulsing mice differently than prototype antiepileptic drugs did. FMOC-L-leucine (up to 100 mg/kg) was inactive in the 6 Hz seizure test, an adult animal model largely responsive to anti-seizure drugs. In a model of neonatal brain injury, FMOC-L-leucine (4 microg/kg) was neuroprotective against cerebral ibotenate toxicity.
2.NPC-15199, a novel anti-inflammatory agent, mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in bladder female transitional carcinoma (BFTC) cells.
Jan CR1, Yu CC, Huang JK. Chin J Physiol. 2000 Mar 31;43(1):29-33.
This report demonstrates that NPC-15199 [(N-(9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)L-leucine)], a novel anti-inflammatory agent, increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human bladder female transitional cancer (BFTC) cells. Using fura-2 as a Ca2+ probe, NPC-15199 (0.1-2 mM) was found to increase [Ca2+]i concentration-dependently. The response saturated at 2-5 mM NPC-15199. The [Ca2+]i increase comprised an initial rise, a slow decay, and a plateau. Ca2+ removal partly inhibited the Ca2+ signals. In Ca2+-free medium, pretreatment with 1 mM NPC-15199 abolished the [Ca2+]i increase induced by 1 microM thapsigargin (an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor); and after pretreatment with thapsigargin, NPC-15199-induced Ca2+ release was dramatically inhibited. This indicates that NPC-15199 released internal Ca2+ mostly from the endoplasmic reticulum. Adding 3 mM Ca2+ increased [Ca2+]i in cells pretreated with 1 mM NPC-15199 in Ca2+-free medium.
3.PPARgamma ligand 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 sensitizes human colon carcinoma cells to TWEAK-induced apoptosis.
Dionne S1, Levy E, Levesque D, Seidman EG. Anticancer Res. 2010 Jan;30(1):157-66.
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) has been shown to induce colon cancer cell apoptosis in the presence of interferon-gamma. We hypothesized that co-treatment using TWEAK with other pro-apoptosis agents could sensitize death receptor-resistant colon cancer cells.
4.A unique PPARgamma ligand with potent insulin-sensitizing yet weak adipogenic activity.
Rocchi S1, Picard F, Vamecq J, Gelman L, Potier N, Zeyer D, Dubuquoy L, Bac P, Champy MF, Plunket KD, Leesnitzer LM, Blanchard SG, Desreumaux P, Moras D, Renaud JP, Auwerx J. Mol Cell. 2001 Oct;8(4):737-47.
FMOC-L-Leucine (F-L-Leu) is a chemically distinct PPARgamma ligand. Two molecules of F-L-Leu bind to the ligand binding domain of a single PPARgamma molecule, making its mode of receptor interaction distinct from that of other nuclear receptor ligands. F-L-Leu induces a particular allosteric configuration of PPARgamma, resulting in differential cofactor recruitment and translating in distinct pharmacological properties. F-L-Leu activates PPARgamma with a lower potency, but a similar maximal efficacy, than rosiglitazone. The particular PPARgamma configuration induced by F-L-Leu leads to a modified pattern of target gene activation. F-L-Leu improves insulin sensitivity in normal, diet-induced glucose-intolerant, and in diabetic db/db mice, yet it has a lower adipogenic activity. These biological effects suggest that F-L-Leu is a selective PPARgamma modulator that activates some (insulin sensitization), but not all (adipogenesis), PPARgamma-signaling pathways.