Flavor & Fragrance
Product Name:
Ethyl 4-oxopentanoate, ethyl 4-oxovalerate, ETHYL LEVULINATE FCC, Pentanoic acid, 4-oxo-, ethyl ester
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
Molecular Formula:
Olfactive Family:
Ethereal | Fruity
Odor description:
An ethereal fruity odor with savory backnotes.
Chemical Structure

Related Ethereal Products

Reference Reading

1.Recyclable Earth-Abundant Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Selective Transfer Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to Produce γ-Valerolactone.
Gowda RR1, Chen EY2. ChemSusChem. 2016 Jan;9(2):181-5. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201501402. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
Nanoparticles (NPs) derived from earth-abundant metal(0) carbonyls catalyze conversion of bio-derived levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone in up to 93 % isolated yield. This sustainable and green route uses non-precious metal catalysts and can be performed in aqueous or ethanol solution without using hydrogen gas as the hydrogen source. Generation of metal NPs using microwave irradiation greatly enhances the rate of the conversion, enables the use of ethanol as both solvent and hydrogen source without forming the undesired ethyl levulinate, and affords recyclable polymer-stabilized NPs.
2.Conformal sulfated zirconia monolayer catalysts for the one-pot synthesis of ethyl levulinate from glucose.
Morales G1, Osatiashtiani A, Hernández B, Iglesias J, Melero JA, Paniagua M, Brown DR, Granollers M, Lee AF, Wilson K. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014 Oct 11;50(79):11742-5. doi: 10.1039/c4cc04594g.
Here we describe a simple route to creating conformal sulphated zirconia monolayers throughout an SBA-15 architecture that confers efficient acid-catalysed one-pot conversion of glucose to ethyl levulinate.
3.Ecotoxicity studies of the levulinate ester series.
Lomba L1, Muñiz S, Pino MR, Navarro E, Giner B. Ecotoxicology. 2014 Oct;23(8):1484-93. doi: 10.1007/s10646-014-1290-y. Epub 2014 Aug 1.
The increasing interest in the development of novel green solvents has led to the synthesis of benign alternative products with minimized environmental impacts. However, most of published studies on green solvents focus primarily on their physicochemical properties, with limited emphasis on absence of ecotoxicological assessment. In this study, we evaluated the acute ecotoxicity of four levulinates (levulinic acid, methyl levulinate, ethyl levulinate and butyl levulinate) on freshwater algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), daphnids (Daphnia magna) and earthworms (Eisenia foetida) using various dose-response tests. As a general trend, the toxicity of levulinate esters in aquatic exposure (assessed as the EC50) increased as a function of increasing alkyl chain length; accordingly, the most toxic compound for the aquatic organisms was butyl levulinate, followed by ethyl levulinate and methyl levulinate. The most toxic compound for E.
4.Efficient catalytic system for the conversion of fructose into 5-ethoxymethylfurfural.
Wang H1, Deng T, Wang Y, Qi Y, Hou X, Zhu Y. Bioresour Technol. 2013 May;136:394-400. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.02.110. Epub 2013 Mar 7.
DMSO can improve the selectivity of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the conversion of carbohydrates. However, one of the bottlenecks in its application is product separation. Thus a one-pot synthesis of 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) rather than HMF from fructose in ethanol-DMSO was investigated. Phosphotungstic acid was used as an effective catalyst. The yield of EMF can be reached as high as 64% in the mixed solvent system of DMSO and ethanol within 130 min at 140 °C. Ethyl levulinate (LAE) was detected as the main by-product, the yield of which increased with the reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst. In addition, the existence of water could significantly reduce the yield of EMF and increased the yield of LAE. Most importantly, it was discovered that EMF could be much more efficiently extracted from the reaction solvent system by some organic solvents than HMF.