1.Solid Lipid Nanoparticles containing 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38): Preparation, characterization, in vitro, and in vivo evaluations.
Mosallaei N1, Mahmoudi A1, Ghandehari H2, Yellepeddi VK3, Jaafari MR4, Malaekeh-Nikouei B5. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2016 Apr 20. pii: S0939-6411(16)30140-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2016.04.016. [Epub ahead of print]
7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38) is a biologically active metabolite of irinotecan. Due to the variability of irinotecan metabolism rate to SN38, and poor solubility of this compound in pharmaceutically acceptable solvents, SN38 has not been successfully used in the clinic. In the present study, we prepared solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulations containing SN38 and evaluated the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of these nanoparticles. SLNs and PEGylated SLNs containing SN38 (SLN-SN38 and PEG-SLN-SN38) were prepared using ultrasonication technique. Nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, and drug encapsulation efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated in two colorectal carcinoma cell lines, namely C-26 and HT-116. In vivo antitumor efficacy of the formulations was evaluated in C-26 xenograft tumor mice models. Mice survival was also explored through 60 days post IV injection. Mean size of SLN-SN38 and PEG-SLN-SN38 was around 103 and 131 nm, respectively.
2.Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.
Aghazadeh M1,2, Ladisch MR1,2,3, Engelberth AS1,2,4. Biotechnol Prog. 2016 Apr 18. doi: 10.1002/btpr.2282. [Epub ahead of print]
Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity towards yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels.