1.Effect of magnesium stearate on chitosan microspheres prepared by an emulsification-coacervation technique.
Lim LY1, Wan LS. J Microencapsul. 1998 May-Jun;15(3):319-33.
Chitosan microspheres were prepared using an emulsification-coacervation technique. The w/o emulsion comprised a mixture of light and heavy liquid paraffins containing sodium dioctyl sulphosuccinate as the oil phase and chitosan solution as the aqueous phase. Pentasodium tripolyphosphate was included as a counterion. The chitosan microspheres obtained showed a high degree of aggregation. This was markedly reduced, by the incorporation of magnesium stearate in the disperse phase. The resultant microspheres were then discrete, spherical with smooth surfaces. Additionally, with an increasing magnesium stearate content, larger-sized microspheres were produced. The DSC analysis data suggested that the magnesium stearate was converted to stearic acid during the preparation process. Chitosan microspheres containing propranolol hydrochloride were similarly prepared, but their surface was convoluted and their shape not well defined. Unlike the microspheres without drug, the size of the drug-loaded microspheres decreased with increasing magnesium stearate content.
2.1H NMR studies of aerosol-OT reverse micelles with alkali and magnesium counterions: preparation and analysis of MAOTs.
Stahla ML1, Baruah B, James DM, Johnson MD, Levinger NE, Crans DC. Langmuir. 2008 Jun 17;24(12):6027-35. doi: 10.1021/la8002965. Epub 2008 May 17.
Simple procedures and characterization of a series of well-defined precursors are described for preparation of a unique microenvironment in nanoreactors, reverse micelles. The Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cs(+), and Mg(2+) surfactants were prepared using liquid-liquid ion exchange using chloride and nitrate salts. The surfactants were characterized using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and a variety of other techniques. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was found to be a sensitive probe for characterization of the size of the nanoreactor as well as its water content. (1)H NMR spectra can be used for detailed characterization of reactions in confined environments when counterion effects are likely to be important. (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed two separate peaks corresponding to water in Mg(AOT)2 samples; one peak arises from water coordinated to the Mg(2+) ion while the other peak arises from bulk water. The two water signals arise directly from the slow exchange of the water coordinated to Mg(2+) in these microemulsions with water in the water pool, and provide an opportunity to study hydration of Mg(2+).
3.Poly(vinyl chloride)-based macrocyclic membrane sensors for magnesium.
Baniwal S1, Chandra S, Panwar A, Singh AK. Talanta. 1999 Oct;50(3):499-508.
Poly(vinyl chloride)-based membranes of macrocycles 4,11-dimethyl-2,4,9,11-tetraethyl-1,5,8,12-tetraaza cyclotetradeca-1,8-diene (I) and 4,11-dioxa-2,9-dimethyl-1,5,8,12-tetraaza cyclotetradeca-1,8-diene (II) with sodium tetraphenyl borate (STB) as an anion excluder and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutylbutyl phosphonate (DBBP) and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and investigated as magnesium selective electrodes. The best performance was observed having the composition (II)-PVC-STB-DBP in the ratio 2:10:1:7, which works well over a wide concentration range (1.9x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-1) M) with a Nernstian slope of 29 mV per decade of activity between pH 2.5 and 6.5. These electrodes have been found to be chemically inert showing a fast response time of 15 s and were used over a period of 3 months with good reproducibility (S=+/-0.2 mV). The selectivity coefficient values for mono-, di- and trivalent cations indicate excellent selectivity for Mg(2+) over a large number of cations.