Dinophysistoxin-1 - CAS 81720-10-7
Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
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Potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase tyoe 1 (PP1) and protein phosphatase tyoe 2A (PP2A).
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Molecular Formula:
ADCs Cytotoxin
Chemical Structure
CAS 81720-10-7 Dinophysistoxin-1

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Reference Reading

1.Effects of inhibitors for intracellular signal transduction systems on the inward current produced by GABA in a snail neuron.
Zhang W1, Han XY, Wong SM, Takeuchi H. Gen Pharmacol. 1998 Feb;30(2):221-5.
1. An inward current (I[in]) was produced by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and muscimol, but not by baclofen, in an identifiable giant neuron type, v-LCDN (ventral-left cerebral distinct neuron), of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac) under voltage clamp. 2. The pharmacological features of the excitatory GABA receptors in this Achatina neuron type, termed the Achatina muscimol II type GABA receptors, were mainly comparable to those of the mammalian GABA(C) receptors. 3. It was demonstrated in the present study that the following inhibitors for intracellular signal transduction systems showed no significant effect on the I(in) produced by GABA in this Achatina neuron type: H-7 [1-(5-isoquinolinyl sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine], an inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) and protein kinase C (PKC); H-8 (N-[2-(methylamino)-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide), a PKA and PKG inhibitor; H-9 [N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide], a PKA inhibitor; staurosporine ((9alpha,10beta,11beta,13alpha)-(+)-2,3,10,11,12 ,13-hexahydro-10-methoxy-9-methyl-11-(methylamino)-9,13-epoxy-1H,9H-d iindolo[1,2,3-gh: 3',2',1'-1m]pyrrolo[3,4-j] [1,7]benzodiazonin-1-one), a PKA and PKC inhibitor; KT5823 ((8R,9S, 11S)-9-methoxy-9-methoxycarbonyl-2N,8-dimethyl-2,3,9,10-tetrahydro-8,11- epoxy-1H,8H,11H-2,7b,11a-triazadibenzo[a,g]cycloocta[c,d,e]- trinden-1-one), a PKG inhibitor; W-7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], a calmodulin inhibitor; ML-9 [1-(5-chloronaphthalene-1-sulfonyl-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine hydrochloride], a myosin light-chain kinase inhibitor; genistein [5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one], a tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor; IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine), a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor; fluphenazine nitrogen-mustard (2-chloroethyl)-4[3-(2-trifluoromethyl-10-phenothiazinyl)-propyl]p iperazine dihydrochloride), a calmodulin-dependent PDE inhibitor; calyculin A, a type 1 protein phosphatase inhibitor; and okadaic acid (9,10-deepithio-9,10-didehydroacanthifolicin), a type 1, 2A and 2B protein phosphatase inhibitor.
2.Adrenomedullin decreases extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity through an increase in protein phosphatase-2A activity in mesangial cells.
Parameswaran N1, Nambi P, Hall CS, Brooks DP, Spielman WS. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Jan 28;388(2):133-8.
Adrenomedullin is a recently identified peptide hormone that has receptors in a number of different systems including renal mesangial cells. We reported recently that adrenomedullin can cause a decrease in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity and increase jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) acitivities in rat mesangial cells. Associated with these responses we also reported that adrenomedullin can decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis in mesangial cells. The major aim of the present study was to examine the mechanism of decrease in ERK activity by adrenomedullin and to identify the role of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the decrease in ERK activity, using okadaic acid [9,10-Deepithio-9,10-didehydroacanthifolicin], a selective inhibitor of PP2A at low nanomolar concentrations. The adrenomedullin-induced decrease in [3H]-thymidine incorporation and increase in apoptosis were reversed by okadaic acid at the concentration that selectively inhibits PP2A.