1.Continuous treatment of flotation collector wastewater using a membrane bioreactor.
Lin W1, Dai Y1, Wu C2, Xu P1, Ren J1, Sun S1, Li B1. Water Sci Technol. 2016;73(8):1901-9. doi: 10.2166/wst.2016.025.
Aniline aerofloat (DDA) is a widely used material in China and has become a main pollutant in floatation wastewater. In this study, a membrane reactor (MBR) was constructed to continuously treat simulated wastewater contaminated with DDA. The study investigated the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the impact of influent DDA concentration on MBR performance, and analyzed intermediates from the DDA biodegradation pathway and activated sludge transfer pathway. The results showed that a 3 h HRT was an efficient and economical time period for MBR to remove 95 ± 5 mg/L DDA from the simulated wastewater; the chemical oxygen demand reduction rate was 89.9%. DDA concentration negatively impacted MBR performance. MBR performance fluctuated slightly when HRT was 3 h, dissolved oxygen ranged from 4.8 to 5.3 mg/L, pH was between 6.5 and 7.0, and DDA concentrations were at 95 ± 5 mg/L DDA. The transfer pathway in the activated sludge of DDA was through soluble microbial products, loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances, tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances, and finally cell biodegradation.
2.Hyaluronic acid-conjugated liposome nanoparticles for targeted delivery to CD44 overexpressing glioblastoma cells.
Hayward SL1, Wilson CL1, Kidambi S1,2,3,4,5. Oncotarget. 2016 Apr 22. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8926. [Epub ahead of print]
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly prevalent and deadly brain malignancy characterized by poor prognosis and restricted disease management potential. Despite the success of nanocarrier systems to improve drug/gene therapy for cancer, active targeting specificity remains a major hurdle for GBM. Additionally, since the brain is a multi-cell type organ, there is a critical need to develop an approach to distinguish between GBM cells and healthy brain cells for safe and successful treatment. In this report, we have incorporated hyaluronic acid (HA) as an active targeting ligand for GBM. To do so, we employed HA conjugated liposomes (HALNPs) to study the uptake pathway in key cells in the brain including primary astrocytes, microglia, and human GBM cells. We observed that the HALNPs specifically target GBM cells over other brain cells due to higher expression of CD44 in tumor cells. Furthermore, CD44 driven HALNP uptake into GBM cells resulted in lysosomal evasion and increased efficacy of Doxorubicin, a model anti-neoplastic agent, while the astrocytes and microglia cells exhibited extensive HALNP-lysosome co-localization and decreased antineoplastic potency.
3.Viral protein suppresses oxidative burst and salicylic acid-dependent autophagy and facilitates bacterial growth on virus-infected plants.
Zvereva AS1, Golyaev V1, Turco S1, Gubaeva EG1, Rajeswaran R1, Schepetilnikov MV2, Srour O2, Ryabova LA2, Boller T1, Pooggin MM1. New Phytol. 2016 Apr 27. doi: 10.1111/nph.13967. [Epub ahead of print]
Virus interactions with plant silencing and innate immunity pathways can potentially alter the susceptibility of virus-infected plants to secondary infections with nonviral pathogens. We found that Arabidopsis plants infected with Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) or transgenic for CaMV silencing suppressor P6 exhibit increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and allow robust growth of the Pst mutant hrcC-, which cannot deploy effectors to suppress innate immunity. The impaired antibacterial defense correlated with the suppressed oxidative burst, reduced accumulation of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) and diminished SA-dependent autophagy. The viral protein domain required for suppression of these plant defense responses is dispensable for silencing suppression but essential for binding and activation of the plant target-of-rapamycin (TOR) kinase which, in its active state, blocks cellular autophagy and promotes CaMV translation.
4.Comparison of multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria on the hydrolysis of mariculture organic waste (MOW).
Guo L1, Sun M2, Zong Y2, Zhao Y2, Gao M2, She Z2. Water Sci Technol. 2016;73(8):1978-85. doi: 10.2166/wst.2016.041.
Mariculture organic waste (MOW) is rich in organic matter, which is a potential energy resource for anaerobic digestion. In order to enhance the anaerobic fermentation, the MOW was hydrolyzed by multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria. It was advantageous for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release at MOW concentrations of 6 and 10 g/L with multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria pretreatments. For multi-enzyme, the hydrolysis was not obvious at substrate concentrations of 1 and 3 g/L, and the protein and carbohydrate increased with hydrolysis time at substrate concentrations of 6 and 10 g/L. For thermophilic bacteria, the carbohydrate was first released at 2-4 h and then consumed, and the protein increased with hydrolysis time. The optimal enzyme hydrolysis for MOW was determined by measuring the changes of SCOD, protein, carbohydrate, ammonia and total phosphorus, and comparing with acid and alkaline pretreatments.