1.Diethyl maleate inhibits MCA+TPA transformed cell growth via modulation of GSH, MAPK, and cancer pathways.
Priya S1, Nigam A1, Bajpai P2, Kumar S3. Chem Biol Interact. 2014 Aug 5;219:37-47. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2014.04.018. Epub 2014 May 9.
Murine or human cancer cells have high glutathione levels. Depletion of the elevated GSH inhibits proliferation of cancer cells. Molecular basis for this observation is little understood. In an attempt to find out the underlying mechanism, we reproduced these effects in transformed C3H10T1/2 and BALB/c 3T3 cells using diethyl maleate and studied cytogenomic changes in the whole mouse genome using spotted 8 × 60 K arrays. Transformed cells revealed an increase in GSH levels. GSH depletion by DEM inhibited the growth of transformed cells. The non-cytotoxic dose of DEM (0.25 mM) resulted in GSH depletion, ROS generation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, decrease in anchorage independent growth, gene expression changes and activation of all three members of the MAPK family. Increase in intracellular GSH levels by GSHe countered the effect of DEM. These results support the physiological importance of GSH in regulation of gene expression for transformed cell growth restraint.
2.Na-K-ATPase in rat cerebellar granule cells is redox sensitive.
Petrushanko I1, Bogdanov N, Bulygina E, Grenacher B, Leinsoo T, Boldyrev A, Gassmann M, Bogdanova A. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Apr;290(4):R916-25. Epub 2005 Nov 17.
Redox-induced regulation of the Na-K-ATPase was studied in dispersed rat cerebellar granule cells. Intracellular thiol redox state was modulated using glutathione (GSH)-conjugating agents and membrane-permeable ethyl ester of GSH (et-GSH) and Na-K-ATPase transport and hydrolytic activity monitored as a function of intracellular reduced thiol concentration. Depletion of cytosolic and mitochondrial GSH pools caused an increase in free radical production in mitochondria and rapid ATP deprivation with a subsequent decrease in transport but not hydrolytic activity of the Na-K-ATPase. Selective conjugation of cytosolic GSH did not affect free radical production and Na-K-ATPase function. Unexpectedly, overloading of cerebellar granule cells with GSH triggered global free radical burst originating most probably from GSH autooxidation. The latter was not followed by ATP depletion but resulted in suppression of active K(+) influx and a modest increase in mortality.
3.Effectiveness of high-throughput miniaturized sorbent- and solid phase microextraction techniques combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for a rapid screening of volatile and semi-volatile composition of wines--a comparative study.
Mendes B1, Gonçalves J, Câmara JS. Talanta. 2012 Jan 15;88:79-94. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.10.010. Epub 2011 Oct 17.
In this study the feasibility of different extraction procedures was evaluated in order to test their potential for the extraction of the volatile (VOCs) and semi-volatile constituents (SVOCs) from wines. In this sense, and before they could be analysed by gas chromatography-quadrupole first stage masss spectrometry (GC-qMS), three different high-throughput miniaturized (ad)sorptive extraction techniques, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) and solid phase microextraction (SPME), were studied for the first time together, for the extraction step. To achieve the most complete volatile and semi-volatile signature, distinct SPE (LiChrolut EN, Poropak Q, Styrene-Divinylbenzene and Amberlite XAD-2) and MEPS (C(2), C(8), C(18), Silica and M1 (mixed C(8)-SCX)) sorbent materials, and different SPME fibre coatings (PA, PDMS, PEG, DVB/CAR/PDMS, PDMS/DVB, and CAR/PDMS), were tested and compared. All the extraction techniques were followed by GC-qMS analysis, which allowed the identification of up to 103 VOCs and SVOCs, distributed by distinct chemical families: higher alcohols, esters, fatty acids, carbonyl compounds and furan compounds.
4.Total synthesis of (-)-goniomitine.
Zhou S1, Jia Y. Org Lett. 2014 Jun 20;16(12):3416-8. doi: 10.1021/ol501341b. Epub 2014 Jun 2.
The total synthesis of (-)-goniomitine has been accomplished in 11 steps starting from commercially available diethyl l-malate. The synthesis features a chiral pool approach to prepare the chiral C-9 unit containing a quaternary carbon center, an Ir-catalyzed C-H borylation to synthesize the 2-indoleboronic acid pinacol ester, and a Suzuki reaction to couple together the two key intermediates. Notably, the high degree of convergence of this strategy makes it particularly amenable to the total synthesis of other aspidosperma family natural products.