1.Evolution of Pharmacological Obesity Treatments: Focus on Adverse Side-Effect Profiles.
Krentz AJ1, Fujioka K2, Hompesch M1. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016 Mar 3. doi: 10.1111/dom.12657. [Epub ahead of print]
Pharmacotherapy directed toward reducing body weight may provide benefits for both curbing obesity and lowering the risk of obesity-associated co-morbidities. However, many weight loss medications have been withdrawn from the market due to serious adverse effects. Examples include pulmonary hypertension (aminorex), cardiovascular toxicity, e.g. flenfluramine-induced valvopathy, stroke (phenylpropanolamine), excess non-fatal cardiovascular events (sibutramine), and neuro-psychiatric issues (rimonabant - approved in Europe, but not in the US). This negative experience has helped mold the current drug development and approval process for new anti-obesity drugs. However, differences between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in perceptions of risk-benefit considerations for individual drugs have resulted in discrepancies in approval and/or withdrawal of weight-reducing medications. Thus, two drugs recently approved by the FDA, i.
2.Psychotic symptoms associated with the use of dopaminergic drugs, in patients with cocaine dependence or abuse.
Roncero C1, Abad AC, Padilla-Mata A, Ros-Cucurull E, Barral C, Casas M, Grau-López L. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2016 Mar 24. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: In the field of dual diagnosis, physicians are frequently presented with pharmacological questions. Questions about the risk of developing psychotic symptoms in cocaine users who need treatment with dopaminergic drugs could lead to an undertreatment.
3.Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.
Hachem R1, Assemat G1, Martins N2, Balayssac S1, Gilard V1, Martino R1, Malet-Martino M3. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016 May 30;124:34-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.02.022. Epub 2016 Feb 22.
One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1).
4.Direct Analysis of Amphetamine Stimulants in a Whole Urine Sample by Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
Crevelin EJ1, Salami FH1, Alves MN1, De Martinis BS1, Crotti AE1, Moraes LA2. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2016 Feb 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are among illicit stimulant drugs that are most often used worldwide. A major challenge is to develop a fast and efficient methodology involving minimal sample preparation to analyze ATS in biological fluids. In this study, a urine pool solution containing amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, sibutramine, and fenfluramine at concentrations ranging from 0.5 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL was prepared and analyzed by atmospheric solids analysis probe tandem mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). A urine sample and saliva collected from a volunteer contributor (V1) were also analyzed. The limit of detection of the tested compounds ranged between 0.002 and 0.4 ng/mL in urine samples; the signal-to-noise ratio was 5. These results demonstrated that the ASAP-MS/MS methodology is applicable for the fast detection of ATS in urine samples with great sensitivity and specificity, without the need for cleanup, preconcentration, or chromatographic separation.