1.Design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of novel spirocyclic quinuclidinyl-Δ2-isoxazoline derivatives as potent and selective agonists of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Dallanoce C1, Magrone P, Matera C, Frigerio F, Grazioso G, De Amici M, Fucile S, Piccari V, Frydenvang K, Pucci L, Gotti C, Clementi F, De Micheli C. ChemMedChem. 2011 May 2;6(5):889-903. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201000514. Epub 2011 Mar 1.
A set of racemic spirocyclic quinuclidinyl-Δ(2)-isoxazoline derivatives was synthesized using a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition-based approach. Target compounds were assayed for binding affinity toward rat neuronal homomeric (α7) and heteromeric (α4β2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Δ(2) -Isoxazolines 3 a (3-Br), 6 a (3-OMe), 5 a (3-Ph), 8 a (3-OnPr), and 4 a (3-Me) were the ligands with the highest affinity for the α7 subtype (K(i) values equal to 13.5, 14.2, 25.0, 71.6, and 96.2 nM, respectively), and showed excellent α7 versus α4β2 subtype selectivity. These compounds, tested in electrophysiological experiments against human α7 and α4β2 receptors stably expressed in cell lines, behaved as partial α7 agonists with varying levels of potency. The two enantiomers of (±)-3-methoxy-1-oxa-2,7-diaza-7,10-ethanospiro[4.5]dec-2-ene sesquifumarate 6 a were prepared using (+)-dibenzoyl-L- or (-)-dibenzoyl-D-tartaric acid as resolving agents. Enantiomer (R)-(-)-6 a was found to be the eutomer, with K(i) values of 4.
2.Enantioenrichment of a tungsten dearomatization agent utilizing chiral acids.
Lankenau AW1, Iovan DA2, Pienkos JA1, Salomon RJ1, Wang S1, Harrison DP1, Myers WH2, Harman WD1. J Am Chem Soc. 2015 Mar 18;137(10):3649-55. doi: 10.1021/jacs.5b00490. Epub 2015 Mar 6.
A method is described for the resolution of the versatile dearomatization reagent TpW(NO)(PMe3)(η(2)-benzene), in which the 1,3-dimethoxybenzene (DMB) analogue of this complex is synthesized. In turn, the coordinated arene of TpW(NO)(PMe3)(DMB) is protonated with either D or L dibenzoyl tartaric acid (DBTH2) in a butanone/water or 2-pentanone/water solution. Sustained stirring of this mixture results in the selective precipitation of a single form of the diastereomeric salt [TpW(NO)(PMe3)(DMBH)](DBTH). After isolation, the salt can be redissolved, and the DMB ligand can be deprotonated and exchanged for benzene to produce the desired product TpW(NO)(PMe3)(η(2)-benzene) in either its R or S form. The absolute configuration of the tungsten stereocenter in TpW(NO)(PMe3)(η(2)-benzene) can be determined in either case by substituting the naturally occurring terpene (S)-β-pinene for benzene and evaluating the 2D NMR spectrum of the corresponding β-pinene complex.
3.Enantioseparation of racemic mixtures based on solvent sublation.
Jiao F1, Yang W, Wang F, Tian L, Li L, Chen X, Mu K. Chirality. 2012 Aug;24(8):661-7. doi: 10.1002/chir.22067. Epub 2012 Jun 1.
A method of solvent sublation was developed for the enantioseparation of racemic ofloxacin (rac Oflx) and racemic tryptophan (rac Trp). In this method, dibenzoyl-L-tartaric acid (L-DBTA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) were used as chiral coextractants and foamer, respectively. Several important parameters influencing the separation performances, such as pH in aqueous phase, concentrations of rac mixtures, L-DBTA, D2EHPA, and SDS, were investigated. Under the optimal operation conditions, the enantiomeric excess and enantioselectivity were 60.08% and 5.58 for Oflx and 65.09% and 6.31 for Trp, respectively. The yields of D-enantiomer and L-enantiomer were 34.23% and 8.54% for Oflx and 18.59% and 3.93% for Trp, respectively. The results suggest that the enantioselectivities have been enhanced compared with the traditional chiral extraction. This technique is an efficient chiral separation method, with many advantages such as low expenditures of organic solvent, low consumption of chiral extractant, and easy realization of multistage operation.
4.Asymmetric noncovalent synthesis of self-assembled one-dimensional stacks by a chiral supramolecular auxiliary approach.
George SJ1, de Bruijn R, Tomović Ž, Van Averbeke B, Beljonne D, Lazzaroni R, Schenning AP, Meijer EW. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Oct 24;134(42):17789-96. doi: 10.1021/ja3086005. Epub 2012 Oct 16.
Stereoselective noncovalent synthesis of one-dimensional helical self-assembled stacks of achiral oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) ureidotriazine (AOPV3) monomers is obtained by a chiral supramolecular auxiliary approach. The racemic mixture of helical stacks of achiral AOPV3 molecules is converted into homochiral helical stacks, as shown by both spectroscopic measurements and molecular modeling simulations. The conversion is promoted by an orthogonal two-point ion-pair interaction with the chiral auxiliary dibenzoyl tartaric acid (D- or L-TA) molecules, which biases the angle population distribution and thereby the stack helicity. The induced preferred helicity is maintained by the OPV stacks even after the removal of the chiral auxiliary by extraction with ethylenediamine (EDA), due to the kinetic stability of the OPV stacks at room temperature. Spectroscopic probing of the helical self-assembly and the racemization process of these π-conjugated OPV chromophores shed further light into the mechanistic pathways of this chiral asymmetric noncovalent synthesis and the kinetic stability of the stacks produced.